Rhetoric Curriculum

The courses in the rhetoric school are all focused on teaching students how to construct and express arguments through deeper exposure to and practice with the subjects taught. Our liberal arts training, emphasizing the verbal and mathematical arts, along with the integration of subjects, comes alive most fully during these last four years. Beyond simply preparing them for college, our curriculum endows students with useful capacities and invigorated imaginations.

Mathematics

Geneva’s mathematics curriculum rests upon the foundational principle that math is a formative liberal arts discipline in its own right as well as a useful tool in fields like science, technology, and engineering. In the rhetoric school the mathematics curriculum seeks to build upon the liberal arts of arithmetic and geometry, expanding these skills as students explore the concepts of discrete quantity and continuous magnitude in the subjects of Algebra and Calculus. From the ancient Greek’s use of trigonometry to determine relative distances of the sun and the moon to Galileo’s predictions of the rate of fall of projectiles, math has been an integral part of analyzing the natural world. As such, mathematics provides a vital resource for studies in scientific disciplines like chemistry and physics.


ALGEBRA I
Taken in 8th & 9th grade (2018–2019) / Will be taken in 8th grade thereafter
Course Code: 1200310 (Regular), 1200320 (Honors)
Teachers: Michelle Garzon (Regular), Lou Ford (Honors)

Mathematics is a wonderful God-given tool that models the relationships of nature and science. It is the language spoken by God’s physical creation. We discover in mathematics a reflection of the order, rationality, and immutability found in God’s own divine nature. In studying mathematics, we develop practical skills in ordering and manipulating the world around us and are able to more effectively rule over nature and benefit mankind. With these skills, we are able to develop a deeper, intuitive understanding of God himself.

In Algebra I we lay the foundations for all other advanced mathematics. Algebra is the branch of mathematics concerned with the manipulation of numbers and variables; and their mixture through the study of polynomials. By learning the rules of the language of mathematics students will be able to harness the power of abstraction. They will know how to convert problems from English language to mathematical sentences (expressions, equations and inequalities). They will also discover the power of the coordinate plane and learn how equations may be represented graphically. Finally, we will learn about the life and work of Leonardo Pisano (Fibonacci) and study the connection between mathematics and art.

The discovery, the learning and the practice of mathematics cannot be separated. Students will encounter a rich learning experience as we engage in activities designed to foster wonder, practice our learning in a cooperative and encouraging setting. Students will be working in a collaborative setting where student interaction is welcome and encouraged.

Enduring Understandings

  • Patterns, functions and relationships can be represented graphically, numerically, symbolically or verbally. The function and relationship concepts are fundamental ideas in mathematics.
  • Algebraic and numeric procedures are interconnected and build on one another. Integration of various mathematical procedures builds a stronger foundation for finding solutions.
  • Technology should be used not to replace mental math and paper and pencil computation, but to enhance understanding of mathematics and the power to use mathematics.
  • There are multiple strategies for finding a mathematical solution and those algorithms are frequently associated with different contexts. Mastery of mathematics depends on choosing appropriate methods.
  • Mathematics is not a matter of magic but a human way of thinking that is accessible to all students. Algebra I seeks to give all students confidence in mathematical thinking.

GEOMETRY
Taken in 9th grade 2019–2020 and thereafter
Course Code: 1206310 (Regular), 1206320 (Honors)
Teachers:

From the Greeks, we have inherited art, literature, and democracy; but they have also given us mathematics, specifically geometry. In mathematics, God has given us a window through which to observe our intricate universe. In fact, it can be said that geometry, with its strict adherence to deduction and abstraction, was the first branch of mathematics to be discovered.

Geometry gives us the ability to think sequentially and logically. It enables us to create and appreciate beauty. In this course, students will explore the beautiful and coherent world of geometry.

We will study the basic axioms, postulates, and definitions of geometry. Students and teacher will engage in a process of discovery in which they will see the beauty of mathematics. They will work in teams to practice, discover, and problem-solve. Class time will include plenty of opportunity to practice skills, play games, and create two- and three-dimensional geometric figures using a variety of methods including construction, the method used by Euclid.

Enduring Understandings

  • Geometry is a deductive system. Knowledge, therefore, proceeds from initial postulates, axioms and definitions to theorems. Because of this it has great internal cohesiveness.
  • Proof is the method for determining mathematical truth beginning with geometry and proceeding to all of the fields of mathematics. Through geometry students develop deductive reasoning through the tool of the proof.
  • Through geometry, we can model the physical world through the use of drawings, models, and equations. We can then use those models to solve real-world problems.
  • Geometric and algebraic procedures are interconnected and build on one another. Integration of various mathematical procedures builds a stronger foundation for finding solutions.

ALGEBRA II
Normally taken in 10th grade
Course Code: 1200330 (Regular), 1200340 (Honors)
Teachers: Janet Andreasen (Regular), Michelle Garzon and Christine Miller (Honors)

Mathematics is a wonderful God-given tool that models the relationships of nature and science. It is the language spoken by God’s physical creation. We discover in mathematics a reflection of the order, rationality, and immutability found in God’s own divine nature. In studying mathematics, we develop practical skills in ordering and manipulating the world around us and are able to more effectively rule over nature and benefit mankind. With these skills, we are able to develop a deeper, intuitive understanding of God himself.

Algebra II has historically been the study of advanced algebra and merging of the abstract computational tool of algebra with the spatial relationships of geometry. This advance allowed for a geometric curve to be represented by an equation, providing extraordinary insight into the properties of shapes and moving objects. This class covers the knowledge, skills, and essential ideas of advanced and geometric algebra and sets the foundation for the introduction of calculus. Special emphasis is placed on learning as a community with the understanding that mathematics in a discovery context requires practice in both the dialectic and rhetoric arts. Through valuable discussion, debate, and play students discover primary principles of Algebra II while sharing in the wonder brought about by the exploration process.

Enduring Understandings

  • Algebra II coursework allows students to refine computational fluency in advanced algebra techniques while developing thorough and efficient organizational habits for computational work.
  • Where appropriate, students are asked to participate in Socratic questioning and discussions. Questions of value or merit are presented, leading to thoughtful discussions designed to sharpen the student’s ability to think clearly, critically, and reflectively about the immediate lesson and the fundamental ideas of the subject matter.
  • Advanced algebra techniques are applied and understood in order to evaluate real-world problem solving situations. Many times these problems require persistence and the ingenuity. Explanations of problem solving methods and alternative methods presented by peers should be clear and logical.
  • Learning is not a solitary activity. A community in which discussions, debate, and play are incorporated contributes to the building of habits for life-long learning.
  • Mathematics is a tool that gives mankind constructs in which to understand the patterns and relationships of God’s creation.

SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION HONORS
Normally taken in 11th grade. Two period class.
Course Code: 1202340 & 2003390 (1 credit each)
Teacher: Lou Ford

In Europe, following the Renaissance, amazing discoveries and mathematical insights transformed the culture. Though the ancient Greeks provided a foundation for these new ideas, Europeans had advanced only slightly in natural philosophy since the fall of the Roman Empire. The revolution in math and physics began quietly in the sixteenth century with Copernicus but accelerated in the seventeenth century culminating in Isaac Newton’s Principia Mathematica Philosophiae Naturalis (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy). The new intellectual framework for studying the world gave birth to modern science which has profoundly impacted not just how our society lives, but how it thinks. This class will trace these developments in detail and rigorously study the quantitative methods, analysis, and arguments that formed the backbone of the scientific revolution. This will require the students to attain a high degree of proficiency in the mathematics of polynomial, rational, trigonometric, exponential, and logarithmic functions as well as develop competence with basic calculus techniques. They will learn to utilize mathematics to understand and explain physical situations and their causes through the concepts of force, momentum, and energy. They will also evaluate the new ideas associated with controversies in the scientific revolution such as the role of natural laws and the mechanical philosophy, the relationship between body and soul, and the use of method for establishing truth.

Enduring Understandings

  • Those who laid the foundations of mathematics and natural science, such as Galileo, Pascal, and Newton, have continued relevance to contemporary discussions of math and science and should be studied as holistic thinkers.
  • The Lordship of Christ over all of creation is meaningful for mathematics and natural science. The rise of modern science is not an unalloyed good free from cultural assumptions and practices but is accompanied by both good and bad elements.
  • Mathematical physics seeks to describe true and beautiful harmonies within creation such as those associated with force, mass, energy, and momentum. But it is not capable of arriving at absolute, universal, or God-like knowledge of reality.
  • The history of discovery offers insight into the justification of knowledge as it reflects a conversation between natural science and natural history governed by natural philosophy.
  • An interdisciplinary approach to natural science and mathematics affords not only greater integration with other subjects but also deeper insights into the disciplines themselves.
  • Late modern science need not elicit skepticism if early modern science is not dogmatic.

SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION DUAL CREDIT
Normally taken in 11th grade. Two period class.
Course Code: 1202340 & PHYC053 (1 credit each)
Minimum Prerequisites: Algebra II (B+), Cum GPA (3.0), 10th grade PSAT math score (570)
Teacher: Ravi Jain

In Europe, following the Renaissance, amazing discoveries and mathematical insights transformed the culture. Though the ancient Greeks provided a foundation for these new ideas, Europeans had advanced only slightly in natural philosophy since the fall of the Roman Empire. The revolution in math and physics began quietly in the sixteenth century with Copernicus but accelerated in the seventeenth century culminating in Isaac Newton’s Principia Mathematica Philosophiae Naturalis (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy). The new intellectual framework for studying the world gave birth to modern science which has profoundly impacted not just how our society lives, but how it thinks. This class will trace these developments in detail and rigorously study the quantitative methods, analysis, and arguments that formed the backbone of the scientific revolution. This will require the students to attain a high degree of proficiency in the mathematics of polynomial, rational, trigonometric, exponential, and logarithmic functions as well as develop competence with basic calculus techniques. They will learn to utilize mathematics to understand and explain physical situations and their causes through the concepts of force, momentum, and energy. They will also evaluate the new ideas associated with controversies in the scientific revolution such as the role of natural laws and the mechanical philosophy, the relationship between body and soul, and the use of method for establishing truth. The culminating exam will require the students to justify the truth of Newton’s description of the power of gravity using observations, mathematical reasoning, and interdisciplinary assumptions. The class will study these topics at a level similar to a college-level physics with calculus-mechanics course.

Enduring Understandings

  • Those who laid the foundations of mathematics and natural science, such as Galileo, Pascal, and Newton, have continued relevance to contemporary discussions of math and science and should be studied as holistic thinkers.
  • The Lordship of Christ over all of creation is meaningful for mathematics and natural science. The rise of modern science is not an unalloyed good free from cultural assumptions and practices but is accompanied by both good and bad elements.
  • Mathematical physics seeks to describe true and beautiful harmonies within creation such as those associated with force, mass, energy, and momentum. But it is not capable of arriving at absolute, universal, or God-like knowledge of reality.
  • The history of discovery offers insight into the justification of knowledge as it reflects a conversation between natural science and natural history governed by natural philosophy.
  • An interdisciplinary approach to natural science and mathematics affords not only greater integration with other subjects but also deeper insights into the disciplines themselves.
  • Technology impacts culture because, “We shape our tools, thereafter our tools shape us.”

FUNCTIONS, PROBABILITY, AND STATISTICS HONORS
Normally taken in 12th grade
Course Code: 1210300
Teacher: Michelle Garzon

Statistics is known as the science of data collection. Just as many fields of science use the scientific method to form conclusions of hypotheses based on experimentation, statistical analysis follows a similar process of observations, forming hypotheses, developing experiments, and accurately interpreting and presenting data to form conclusions. Statistical modeling provides quantifiable, empirical data that presents correlations and relationships within data and allows professionals to develop predictions based on current outcomes or trends with varying degrees of confidence.

As an introductory statistics course, this course will present how to form statistical hypotheses, accurately collect appropriate and unbiased data from experimentation or data collection, explore the various ways of analyzing data, and develop statistical reasoning skills. Often viewed as an objective form of mathematics, students will develop an understanding that statistics can be very subjective and oftentimes misleading depending on how data is collected and interpreted.

During the first nine weeks we will be incorporating SAT mathematics subject matter into the statistics course to help students prepare to take the exam. We will be studying test-taking and problem-solving strategies as well as reviewing all previous mathematical topics including Pre-Algebra, Algebra I, Algebra II, Geometry, and Pre-calculus coursework. Students will enhance their testing efficiency with specific strategies regarding the use of graphing calculators.

Enduring Understandings

  • In the first nine weeks, we will review test-taking strategies and skills for the SAT mathematics test. The SAT mathematics test covers all skills from previous coursework including Pre-Algebra, Algebra I, Algebra II, Geometry, and Pre-calculus.
  • Statistical analysis and graphic displays often reveal patterns in seemingly random data or populations, enabling predictions with varying degrees of confidence. The message conveyed by the data depends on how the data is collected, represented, and summarized.
  • Statistical analysis and modeling can be utilized to argue or refute theories in a variety of disciplines. The process of accurate modeling includes the knowledge of valid experiments, creating statistical hypothesis, design an experiment, and correctly interpret data with reasonable arguments using logical inductive and deductive skills.
  • Statistics utilizes mathematical processes of problem solving, communication, reasoning, representations, and technology to solve problems and communicate results clearly.
  • Solving statistical problems requires an understanding of spatial sense, geometric properties, measurement, patterns, functions, statistics, probability, and simple algebraic concepts.

AP CALCULUS AB
Normally taken in 12th grade
Course Code: 1202310
Minimum Prerequisites: Pre-calculus Hons (B+), Cum GPA (3.0), 11th grade PSAT math score (570)
Teacher: Christine Miller

Calculus arose out of the scientific revolution of the 1600s and is an expressly unique mathematical tool that uses the principles of zero and infinity to efficiently determine exact answers to problems that could only be solved as laborious approximations beforehand. The elegance, simplicity, and raw computational power of calculus served as the fuel for the rapid and profound advances in the physical sciences and thus significantly shaped the philosophy and culture of the modern Western world.

As the culminating mathematics high school class, students will be expected to think deeply about the mathematics and tackle problems of greater complexity than they have in the past. From the first day, students will learn to look at problems from a variety of angles and determine appropriate methods for solving them. My hope is that they will discover the beauty of the calculus and see the world through this new lens.

We will walk together through the basic ideas of the calculus; beginning with the limit, continuing on with the derivative and concluding with the integral. Every day students will work, play and learn together. We will approach learning as a communal endeavor with the teacher as facilitator and guide helping students to discover and appreciate the beauty of the calculus.

Enduring Understandings

  • Patterns, functions and relationships can be represented graphically, numerically, symbolically or verbally.
  • The derivative represents a rate of change and may be used to find local linear approximation. It may be applied to solve a variety of problems.
  • The definite integral may be understood both as a limit of Riemann sums and as the net accumulation of change and can be used to solve a variety of problems.
  • The relationship between the derivative and the definite integral is understood through the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.
  • Technology should be used not to replace mental math and paper and pencil computation, but to enhance understanding of mathematics and the power to use mathematics.
  • The study of calculus is a human endeavor born in a particular time and place that can allow us to more fully understand the universe and worship the God who created it.

AP CALCULUS BC
Normally taken in 12th grade
Course Code: 1202320
Minimum Prerequisites: Pre-calculus Hons (B+), Cum GPA (3.0), 11th grade PSAT math score (600)
Teacher: Ravi Jain

This class will explore the themes of Calculus II and teach students to master its techniques. There are at least five loci on which we will focus: the calculus of transcendental functions, volumes of solids, advanced calculus techniques, infinite power series, and the calculus of polar coordinates. By studying these topics and through the use of practice problems this class will prepare the students to take the AP Calculus BC examination in May. As we study these interesting concepts in mathematics we will also consider the implications of their discoveries. We will explore the thought of men such as Leibniz, Peirce, and Godel and follow how their mathematics, philosophical ideas, and religious beliefs impacted each other and the culture. While much early modern mathematics established the hegemony of autonomous reason, by the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, mathematics had inadvertently come to undermine its own preeminence. Mathematics has often been upheld as a paradigm of certainty, but over the past century developments such as Chaos Theory, Godel’s Incompleteness Theorem, and Non-Euclidean Geometry have shaken these assumptions. This class will highlight a biblical perspective in these matters and nurture a Christian approach to mathematics, reason, and reality in the twenty-first century.

Enduring Understandings

  • The careful and rigorous attention to quantitative demonstrations like the proof of Euler’s theorem accustoms the mind to seeing perfection and necessary connections, a skill central to all rational thinking as envisioned by Plato.
  • Mathematical advances are alternately driven by physical applications, such as finding the volumes of solids of rotation, and the search for coherence reflecting the traditional distinction between real being and beings of reason, Gabriel’s Horn for example.
  • The calculation of infinite sequences and series reflects the interplay between the one and the many, the discrete and the continuous, seen in the work of Newton and Leibniz.
  • The univocal assumptions adopted in the early modern period crumbled into postmodern anti-realism somewhat influenced by nineteenth and twentieth century mathematics such as Non-Euclidean Geometry, Godel’s Incompleteness Theorem, and Chaos Theory.
  • Jesus Christ, as the incarnate logos and a person of the Trinity, is the locus and model of reconciliation for the mathematical and empirical, the one and the many, and quantity and quality, as suggested in Colossians 1:15–20.
  • Submitting our knowing selves to Christ’s lordship includes the cultivation of good habits, fitting emotions, and true beliefs regarding natural reality and mathematical truth. This includes the proper delight in the beauty of the designs sketched using polar functions.
    Mathematics properly pursued should lead us to wonder, work, wisdom, and worship.

Science

Science in the rhetoric school allows for training in both the verbal and mathematical arts to come together. Skills of observation, interpretation, classification, and identification of cause and effect are coupled with skills of computation, analysis, and prediction. By studying the created world properly, we begin to understand and appreciate the mind of the creator. The natural sciences like biology, chemistry, and physics emphasize an empirical approach to knowledge that is highlighted by the central role of observation in the scientific method. We also study the findings of the great scientists, highlighting the role that observation played in their work and emphasizing the actual history of their discoveries. In addition, we train the students to be good observers and scientists through both formal and informal experiments and laboratory work. A quantitative analytical approach to science that utilizes the mathematical arts is employed as students progress in mathematical ability. The study of science contributes well to the educational goal of the school as a whole: the pursuit of truth together with goodness and beauty.


BIOLOGY HONORS
Normally taken in 9th grade
Course Code: 2000320
Teacher: Robbie Andreasen

Biology is a course that will survey the study of life. We will explore the characteristics and nature of living organisms. In the first semester we will explore the historical divisions of living things: humans, animals, and plants. Students will learn the attributes of living things by studying the human body, rat dissection, and understanding how the systems of the body are integrated together. From there we will see how these attributes are manifested throughout the diversity of the animal and plant kingdoms. During the course of the first semester students will discuss how the study of these subjects has changed from the time of the ancient Near East to the Middle Ages.

In the second semester we will see how the study of biology changed because of the discovery of cells. Ecology is studied in the context of a week-long camping trip to the Everglades. Following this study of diversity we discuss how the theory of evolution developed since the scientific revolution in order to try to explain the diversity of life. Finally, the recent developments of theories of inheritance and the cellular processes that exist within cells will be studied and explored. The course culminates in discussion about the adequacy of mechanistic, evolutionary processes for explaining everything that is understood about biology.

Throughout this year expect interconnections with English, Western civilization, and rhetoric classes.

Enduring Understandings

  • Living organisms integrate a variety of structures to carry on the functions of life.
  • Organisms are interconnected with other organisms and their environments.
  • Biology is tied to the historical narrative that shapes who we are as we study nature.
  • Biology as a science is a way of knowing characterized by observation, induction, comparison, and narrative that is distinct from the physical sciences.
  • Biology demonstrates the intricacies and complexities of God’s creation through the interaction of information, molecular systems, organisms, and their environments.

CHEMISTRY HONORS
Normally taken in 10th grade
Course Code: 20003350
Teacher: Andrew Nelson

The world is full of intriguing phenomena. To understand what is happening at the visible level you must understand what is happening at the atomic level. A firm understanding of the topics presented in this course will allow for an easy transition to the study of any of the modern sciences, engineering, or medicine. For the future non-scientist, this study will provide an understanding both of what science is and will aim to instill a sense of wonder and awe for the created world.

It is my hope that the students in this course gain a profound understanding of the world in which they live, both the parts they can see and the parts they cannot. We will characterize matter both quantitatively and qualitatively, learn various models that describe the nature of matter and chemical bonding, and explore the nature of atoms. The ability to gain knowledge by analyzing data will also be a recurring theme. Where possible, attention will be given to scientific and ethical issues, and the intersections of science and religion.

Course information will be presented in lecture form, guided inquiry, and inquiry. Scientific phenomena will also be demonstrated in class either by the instructor or in the form of student laboratory investigation. We will celebrate the study of science with a mole day party (10/23), various scientific experiments, and studying the impact of gas laws on bottle rockets. I hope that students will find this course interesting and challenging, and that they will use it as a microscope to peer into the beauty of God’s creation.

Enduring Understandings

  • Most everything we observe, chemically speaking, can be explained through the use of models at various scales.
  • All matter is made up of atoms. This matter undergoes chemical and physical changes and can be understood in both quantitative and qualitative ways. All of these changes also involve changes in energy.
  • Chemistry has a rich history that includes both negative and positive interactions with society.
  • Chemistry also has a rich future that includes both negative and positive interactions with society.
  • Chemistry, and more broadly speaking science, does not stand in opposition to faith. Instead, it can and should work in concert with faith in an attempt to understand the mysteries of God’s creation.

SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION HONORS
Normally taken in 11th grade
This course is a combined two-period math and science class for juniors.
See course description in the mathematics section of this page.


SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION DUAL CREDIT
Normally taken in 11th grade
This course is a combined two-period math and science class for juniors.
See course description in the mathematics section of this page.


CENTRAL FLORIDA NATURAL HISTORY
Normally taken in 12th grade
Course Code: 2002450
Teacher: Matt Clark

Central Florida Natural History will focus on getting outside and seeing things where they live. The environs surrounding the school are richer in life than we typically imagine. Within a half-mile of campus there are dozens of insect, arthropod, mollusk, mammal, reptile, fish, bird, tree, vine, fern, and “weed” species. We are just accustomed to ignoring them! This class is interested in seeing and understanding them.

We will be interested in observing things very closely. In order to do this we will make collections of plants and animals both live and preserved. The class will work together to construct plant presses to preserve and collect plant specimens. It will also construct a large specimen box to house the insects collected as a part of the class. In addition to collecting specimens, we will be constructing and keeping a detailed natural history fieldbook/sketchbook. This book will serve as the repository of all the close observations students make of the various things we collect or bring inside to observe.

Enduring Understandings

  • In order to love a place (and it is proper to love the place where one lives), it is necessary to be able to name and understand the non-human things that also live in that place.
  • Central Florida is home to an enormous variety of living things. These things do not confine themselves to “wild” areas; they live all around us at all times of the year.
  • Beauty is common, but it is not always easy to see. One has to look, know where to look, and know how to see the beauty that lives there.

ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY DUAL CREDIT
Normally taken in 12th grade
Course Code: BSCC093
Minimum Prerequisites: Biology honors and Chemistry honors (B+), Cum GPA (3.0), 11th grade PSAT math score (600)
Teacher: Robbie Andreasen

Anatomy and Physiology is an advanced science course that is designed to be a sort of pre-pre-med course. If you are interested in any career in medicine, then this course will give you a thorough introduction to it. If you are not interested in a career in medicine but would like to have a better understanding of the human body and medical language, then this course is also for you. This course will study human anatomy and physiology, the parts and functions of the body. Students will also learn basic medical terminology. Students who are skilled in language, particularly Latin, will find practical application for such knowledge in this course. There is one major cat dissection and practical per quarter consisting of muscles, sheep heart, and internal anatomy. As we survey the organ systems of the body, students will learn about disease processes in that system, and we will also discuss ethical issues surrounding the body including transhumanism, homosexuality, sexual ethics, and transgender issues. All of this is completed in the first three quarters.

The final quarter is the quarter of integration. Students are introduced to four basic medical charts: history and physical, operative report, consult, and discharge summary. Students are also taught basic techniques for suturing. Each group receives a new cat that they will perform specific surgeries upon, e.g. leg disarticulation amputation. Students then need to create the story of why their patient needed this procedure in the format of the aforementioned medical charts. Each group then presents their case to the class and teacher as though speaking with medical professionals and is cross-examined regarding their understanding of anatomy, physiology, and disease process as well as their appropriate use of medical terminology.

Enduring Understandings

  • The structures of the human body give rise to a functioning, integrated system.
  • Disease disrupts the functioning of this integrated system.
  • A human being bears the image of God in their essence and not in their functions.
  • Grow in skills for dissecting and observing specimens.

AP CHEMISTRY
Normally taken in 12th grade
Course Code: 2003370
Minimum Prerequisites: Chemistry Honors (B+), Cum GPA (3.0), 11th grade PSAT math score (600)
Teacher: Andrew Nelson

Some might ask why a Christian classical school like The Geneva School would offer an AP Chemistry class, but the answer is quite simple. The course that the College Board designed is academically rigorous and can greatly benefit those students who plan further study in the hard sciences after high school. Topics covered will include properties of matter, atomic structure, bonding, stoichiometry, kinetics, equilibrium, acid-base reactions, thermochemistry, basics of organic chemistry, and electrochemistry. These topics and related skills are the foundation to modern chemistry and will serve as a backdrop for all students’ future science endeavors. In an effort not to “reinvent the wheel” we offer this course designed by the College Board, but from our own historic Christian view point, as a way for students to grow in their understanding of the material world and develop the required skills to practice the discipline of science.

The structure of the classroom will be primarily discussion-based. Students will have a great opportunity to participate in class discussions. Homework will consist of reading checks, watching supplemental lectures online, practice problems from the book, and completing practice tests. Special attention will also be given to labs which will be delivered in a guided-inquiry format. Students will begin each lab period by mastering the particular skills needed, then will develop and implement their own experiment. This course is incredibly challenging both in the breadth and depth of topics covered and knowledge that will be required by the end of the year. Yet the student who finishes the course will find it quite rewarding as they see the world differently and ultimately get a deeper view of God’s beauty.

Enduring Understandings

In addition to the big ideas, scientific practices, and further details outlined by the College Board, it is the goal of this particular course and instructor that students should grasp these specific enduring understandings related to our view of chemistry at The Geneva School:

  • To understand the physical world, a student must understand chemistry. It is the central science, and without it, neither biology nor physics can be fully grasped.
  • The answers given by the study of chemistry do not negate answers provide by other pursuits (philosophical or theological) but work in a very important way to support them.
  • It is only recently that scientists have taken to studying science and science alone. In truth, science and faith aren’t exclusive; but they aren’t the same thing either. They represent different ways of knowing and they answer fundamentally different questions.
  • We are studying the natural world and answering questions regarding the natural world when we study chemistry.
  • Chemistry, and more broadly speaking science, does not stand in opposition to faith. Instead, it can and should work in concert with faith in an attempt to understand the mysteries of God’s creation.

AP PHYSICS C – ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM
Normally taken in 12th grade
Course Code: 2003425
Minimum Prerequisites: Scientific Revolution (B+), Cum GPA (3.0), 11th grade PSAT math score (600)
Teacher: Ravi Jain

This class sequentially follows the previous course in the scientific revolution. It will trace the eighteenth and nineteenth century developments in electricity and magnetism leading to the discovery of the nature of light. The class will prepare the students to take the AP Physics C-Electricity and Magnetism examination in May and must be taken concurrently with the AP Calculus BC. It will also review topics for the AP Physics C-Mechanics exam. The electromagnetic conclusions regarding light provided the necessary foundations for Einstein’s discovery of the Theory of Relativity, which overthrew the Newtonian paradigm. The first scientific revolution inspired early modern philosophers, notably John Locke, to develop a rigorous empirically-inspired foundation for society. On the other hand, the surprising results of relativity theory and quantum physics during the twentieth century startled many and contributed to the erosion of the ideas of modernity. Relativism had already taken root philosophically, but its champions annexed, often inadvisedly, developments in the twentieth century, such as chaos theory and relativity theory, to bulwark their claims. Thus the twentieth century has witnessed the rise of both scientism and postmodernism as two divergent approaches to truth in reality. This class will seek to highlight a biblical perspective in these matters and engender a Christian approach to science and knowledge in the twenty-first century. As in Scientific Revolution, this class will continue to challenge the student with many new topics in physics and mathematics and will expect students to justify their knowledge through proofs, demonstrations, and persuasive arguments.

Enduring Understandings

What is Real?

  • The univocal assumptions adopted in the early modern period about reality, truth and knowing crumbled into postmodern anti-realism strongly influenced by eighteenth through twentieth century physics, including the ontology of the continuous field, relativity theory, and quantum physics.
  • Christian metaphysics provides the foundation necessary for natural science and natural philosophy and guards our thoughts from subtle but corrosive falsehoods and idols.
  • Jesus Christ as the incarnate logos and a person of the Trinity, is the locus and model of reconciliation for the mathematical and empirical, the one and the many, and quantity and quality, as suggested in Colossians 1:15–20.

How do we Know it?

  • The quantitative nature of reality can be discovered by the careful mathematical observation of five key phenomena in electricity and magnetism, which also trains the mind for further empirical thinking. These five phenomena are: static point charges, parallel plate capacitors, circuits, two parallel current carrying wires, a moving magnet’s influence on a loop of wire.
  • Scientific advances are alternately driven by new observations and the search for coherent representations of such and reflect the traditional distinction between real being and beings of reason. Thus how should we consider Einstein’s assertion of the reality of electric and magnetic fields and does that suggest that electric flux is also a real being.

How then shall we Live?

  • Submitting our knowing selves to Christ’s lordship includes the cultivation of good habits, fitting emotions, and true beliefs regarding natural reality and mathematical truth. This includes a wonder towards the conclusions of the relativity of space and time as demonstrated by Einstein.
  • Natural Science properly pursued should lead us to wonder, work, wisdom, and worship.

English

In the rhetoric school, English is a literature-based curriculum. Although English at the seventh and eighth grade level places particular emphasis on the writing process, rhetoric students continue to study grammar, vocabulary, and writing primarily by drawing upon the literary works studied. Equal emphasis is placed on both the analysis of and aesthetic appreciation for the rich tradition found in the literary canon of Western civilization. As Christians we find in great literature a presentation of the human condition that mirrors the biblical truth of both the dignity and disorder of man’s state and his resulting need for salvation. As they wrestle with important literary themes from every age, students are expected to form and articulate, both orally and in writing, ideas that can be logically defended and winsomely expressed.


ENGLISH I HONORS
Normally taken in 9th grade
Course Code: 1001320
Teacher: Scott Forrester

“Become what you are.” – Pindar

The Greek poet Pindar knew that a man is always in the process of becoming something other than what he currently is. Man is destined for, created for, something more than mere existence. As Christians we know what that “something more” is—viz. the perfect humanity of Jesus Christ. This is why we study the liberal arts—so called because they liberate the mind enslaved by ignorance, parochialism, indolence, and pride. As Russell Kirk expresses it, we read to impart “both order and freedom to the intellect.” CS Lewis agrees, pointing out that reading “the old books,” also provides a corrective to “the characteristic mistakes of our own period.” We read medieval and Renaissance literature because it enables us to look at ourselves from outside of ourselves, to look at our age from outside of our age, and to take a step closer to becoming in actuality what we are in Christ—truly human.

To this end, students in English I (Honors) will study several major works of literature, beginning with several tales of Northern European mythology, followed by Beowulf, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Sir Orfeo, Dante’s Divine Comedy, Book I of The Faerie Queene, and Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet, as well as selections other representative poems and writings of the medieval and Renaissance period. In the midst of these works students will also complete their reading of Professor Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings, which they began with their summer reading of The Fellowship of the Ring.

Students will also continue to develop their writing skills by writing expositions, comparisons, poetry, and analyses. In this way, students learn to write well-ordered, carefully-worded prose and verse that express ideas vividly and present arguments in a logical and persuasive manner.

In addition, to the disciplines of reading and composition, we desire to enable students to develop mental prowess and skills of oratory. The goal is not to make of every student a Cicero, but to help them discipline their minds and order their speech such that they are able to acquit themselves well publicly. To this end, students will be required to memorize and recite poetry on a regular basis throughout the year, learning and expressing, as Samuel Taylor Coleridge put it, “The best words in the best order.”

Enduring Understandings

  • Ecclesiastes 3:11 says, “He has made everything beautiful in its time. He has also set eternity in the human heart; yet no one can fathom what God has done from beginning to end.” This reminds us that God has written a story on our hearts, and that story—through faith in Christ—is one whose origins and “happily ever after” are rooted in the eternity of heaven.
  • Patterns—such as story, character, and symbolic archetypes—as well as proof of a creator and the harmony he intends for his creation, are embedded in literature.
  • A Christian worldview enables us to read pagan and secular fiction with an ear attuned to the clear differences between mythology and scriptural truth; we can recognize where stories are faithful to the intended pattern of God’s truth, or deviate as a result of sin.
  • Students shall understand that literature is valuable; it can reveal a great deal about specific cultures or time periods, as well as speak to greater biblical truths. It is significant that Article 2 of the Belgic Confession, in reminding us of the means by which we can know God, compares the universe before us to “a beautiful book in which all creatures, great and small, are as letters to make us ponder the invisible things of God.”

ENGLISH II HONORS
Normally taken in 10th grade
Course Code: 1001350
Teacher: Laura Grace Alexander

Tenth grade English examines the literature of the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries, tracing the way the traditions of epic poetry—studied in eighth and ninth grade—influence later literature, particularly Milton’s Paradise Lost. As the students approach the dawn of Modernity in their history classes, they will witness in this course the effects of the Reformation, Renaissance, Enlightenment, and Industrial Revolution on literature such as poetry and drama by Shakespeare, Metaphysical poetry by Donne and Herbert, Romantic poetry by Blake, Wordsworth, and Coleridge, and novels by Shelley, Dickens and Charlotte Brontë.

The overarching question that we will wrestle with in this course is: What does it mean to be human? These authors answer this question in numerous ways, but all of them, Christian and non-Christian alike, reveal something of what is true about the nature of man as he was designed to be and as he is in his fallen state. Through collaborative learning, seminar discussion, lecture, hands-on projects, and writing, students will not only gain a clearer understanding of these seminal works in the Western literary canon but also a clearer self-understanding of how to live more fully and truly as human beings. Thus the course seeks through the reading, study, and discussion of great literature to fulfill in part the mission of The Geneva School, namely, to guide students in loving beauty, thinking deeply, and pursuing Christ’s calling.

Enduring Understandings

  • Close examination of great literature provides rich opportunities for the careful reader to analyze and evaluate themes, as well as the motivations, actions, and outcomes of characters and authors, which may have profound implications for his or her own life in light of biblical truth.
  • An author’s writing is affected by his (or her) life experiences and societal influences; therefore, as we explore literature, the wise reader must take note of an author’s historical and cultural milieu out of which his worldview arises.
  • Each author has a purpose for writing which may be to expose injustice or hypocrisy, to persuade for change, to communicate information, or simply to entertain. It is important to recognize an author’s purpose.
  • A work of literature should be approached with curiosity, open-mindedness, and humility.
    When reading great literature, be it fiction, non-fiction, drama, or poetry, we delight in both the creative use of language and a work’s enduring themes.
  • Because human beings were designed to live in community, clear oral and written communication is a fundamental necessity, so we strive to increase our vocabulary, to be precise in grammar and diction, and to communicate our ideas in a winsome and persuasive manner.
  • Learning is a communal endeavor.

ENGLISH III HONORS
Normally taken in 11th grade
Course Code: 1001380
Teacher: Mandy Turnbull

English III is designed to provide students with an overview of and appreciation for American literature and teach them to write analytically about literature. This course will train students to read closely in a variety of literary forms including novels, short stories, poems, and plays. Students will then be asked to analyze and write about the author’s purpose, recognizing how the author uses literary devices to achieve that purpose and to communicate ideas and experiences to the reader. As a study of literature, the course will ask students to continually contemplate the value of story and how we understand and evaluate the things we read.

Our overarching question for the year seeks to examine how our literature reflects the American experience and identity. Art emerges from and naturally bears the marks of the society in which it is created. It reflects and speaks to the strengths, values, and dreams of that culture as well as its weaknesses, failures, and fears. Therefore, as a study of American literature in particular, this course will familiarize students with a number of great works and influential movements in the American literary tradition. We will use our study of these works to address the overriding questions, “how has our art reflected the American experience?” and thus, “what does it mean to be an American?” Though students are encouraged to refer continually to these questions and attempt their own answers, this course approaches these questions by recognizing that the American identity, as expressed in our literature, bears the hallmarks of its Puritan legacy, its veneration of rugged individualism, and its history of slavery and racial inequality. These forces have shaped and indelibly marked us, and they recur frequently in our best stories and poems, forever defining and shaping our understanding of the American Dream.

Enduring Understandings

  • Good reading requires an active and inquisitive mind and a willingness to accept the text in the spirit in which it was offered. Close reading of literary texts requires an easy command of literary devices, genres, and methods, and the perception to see how an author uses those to convey meaning.
  • Writing is a process that requires frequent revision and revisiting. Its goal is to communicate clearly and persuasively stories or ideas that have value.
  • “Literature” is notoriously hard to define or delimit, but in this class we will understand literature as a written work that demonstrates artistry, that rewards multiple readings, that is always rooted in a historical and ideological context, but that transcends that context to speak to larger questions of human experience and imagination.
  • American literature broadly addresses the question, “What does it mean to be an American?” The American identity, as expressed in our literature, bears the hallmarks of its Puritan legacy, its veneration of rugged individualism, and its history of slavery and racial inequality.

AP ENGLISH LITERATURE AND COMPOSITION
Normally taken in 11th grade
Course Code: 1001430
Minimum Prerequisites: English II Honors (B+), Cum GPA (3.0), 10th grade PSAT evidenced based reading and writing score (550)
Teacher: Mandy Turnbull

This AP English Literature and Composition course is designed to do two things: (1) to prepare students to pass the AP English Literature and Composition exam, and (2) to provide students with an overview of and appreciation for American literature. As preparation for the AP Literature exam, this course will teach students to read closely in a variety of literary forms including novels, short stories, poems, and plays. Students will then be asked to analyze and write about the author’s purpose, recognizing how the author uses literary devices to achieve that purpose and to communicate ideas and experiences to the reader. As a study of literature, the course will ask students to continually contemplate the value of story and how we understand and evaluate the things we read.

Our overarching question for the year seeks to examine how our literature reflects the American experience and identity. Art emerges from and naturally bears the marks of the society in which it is created. It reflects and speaks to the strengths, values, and dreams of that culture as well as its weaknesses, failures, and fears. Therefore, as a study of American literature in particular, this course will familiarize students with a number of great works and influential movements in the American literary tradition. We will use our study of these works to address the overriding questions, “how has our art reflected the American experience?” and thus, “what does it mean to be an American?” Though students are encouraged to refer continually to these questions and attempt their own answers, this course approaches these questions by recognizing that the American identity, as expressed in our literature, bears the hallmarks of its Puritan legacy, its veneration of rugged individualism, and its history of slavery and racial inequality. These forces have shaped and indelibly marked us, and they recur frequently in our best stories and poems, forever defining and shaping our understanding of the American Dream.

Enduring Understandings

  • Good reading requires an active and inquisitive mind and a willingness to accept the text in the spirit in which it was offered.
  • Close reading, a skill that the AP exam tests, requires an easy command of literary devices, genres, and methods, and the perception to see how an author uses those to convey meaning.
  • Writing is a process that requires frequent revision and revisiting. Its goal is to communicate clearly and persuasively stories or ideas that have value.
  • Writing for the AP English Literature and Composition exam requires the ability to respond to a writing prompt with a well-organized essay that uses tools of literary analysis and examples from literature with which the student is familiar.
  • “Literature” is notoriously hard to define or delimit, but in this class we will understand literature as a written work that demonstrates artistry, that rewards multiple readings, that is always rooted in a historical and ideological context, but that transcends that context to speak to larger questions of human experience and imagination.
  • American literature broadly addresses the question, “What does it mean to be an American?” The American identity, as expressed in our literature, bears the hallmarks of its Puritan legacy, its veneration of rugged individualism, and its history of slavery and racial inequality.

ENGLISH IV HONORS
Normally taken in 12th grade
Course Code: 1001410
Teacher: Scott Forrester

“Men do not make laws. They do but discover them.” – Calvin Coolidge

English IV (Honors) at the Geneva School is a culminating English course that allows our seniors to encounter important writing of the past and present in order to reflect on the specifically Christian and classical education they’ve received and to consider seriously the role that they and their education play in the modern world. As President Coolidge pointed out, the world is something we encounter, not make. What then does it mean to receive a “Christian classical education”? How do we reconcile the Christian and classical traditions? How have these traditions informed our civic responsibilities? Do “permanent things” exist? Do such things matter? What are the challenges and pitfalls of being human in this digital age?

Our readings and essays will address these and other enduring questions, chosen with the aim of teaching students to address topics across the humanities and sciences, primarily in short essays, employing the rhetorical and intellectual skills they have developed during their years at the Geneva School. To accomplish this, we will learn to read with critical attention to an author or speaker’s purpose in writing or speaking, the occasion of his address, the audience being addressed, and the author’s tone. We will gain fluency in writing by regular practice writing essays of persuasion, analysis, and synthesis.

The journey begins with our summer reading of C. S. Lewis’ Till we Have Faces as a myth in which the Christian and classical traditions cohere. Other highlights include the examination of additional works of significance to the Western Tradition which place us squarely in the midst of the ongoing discussion of, and fight to retain, what T. S. Eliot called “the permanent things”—those truths that have defined classical and Christian thought for more than four centuries, as well as frequent and active class discussions about topics of relevance to students’ lives and our annual spring trip to see a Shakespeare play performed at the Orlando Shakespeare Theater.

Enduring Understandings

  • Good reading requires an active and inquisitive mind and a willingness to accept the text in the spirit in which it was offered.
  • Close reading requires attentiveness to the author’s purpose and to the structures and rhetorical devices he uses to further that purpose.
  • Writing is a process that requires frequent revision and revisiting. Its goal is to communicate clearly and persuasively stories or ideas that have value.
  • Academic writing involves first becoming conversant with a topic, then entering the conversation by responding to what others are saying with a thesis of your own, and arguing that thesis using reasoning and evidence appropriate to your subject and audience.
  • The class continues training in three kinds of academic writing: argumentative essays that advance a thesis with clear reasoning and appropriate evidence, analytical essays that explain the means an author uses to further her purpose, and synthetic essays that build an argument incorporating multiple sources that the test provides.
  • Nearly all forms of communication—the spoken or written word, the still or moving image, and others—spring from a context, aim at an audience, and are driven by a purpose. Being aware of this makes you a more discerning reader, listener, or viewer, and a better writer.

AP ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION
Normally taken in 12th grade
Course Code: 1001420
Minimum Prerequisites: AP English Literature or English III Honors (B+), Cum GPA (3.0), 11th grade PSAT evidenced based reading and writing score (550)
Teacher: Scott Forrester

“Men do not make laws. They do but discover them.” – Calvin Coolidge

The Geneva School AP English Language and Composition course is designed to do two things: to prepare students for the AP English Language and Composition exam and to function as a culminating English course that allows our seniors to encounter important writing of the past and present in order to reflect on the specifically Christian and classical education they’ve received and to consider seriously the role that they and their education play in the modern world. As President Coolidge pointed out, the world is something we encounter, not make. What then does it mean to receive a “Christian classical education”? How do we reconcile the Christian and classical traditions? How have these traditions informed our civic responsibilities? Do “permanent things” exist? Do such things matter? What are the challenges and pitfalls of being human in this digital age?

Our readings and essays will address these and other enduring questions, chosen with the aim of teaching students to address topics across the humanities and sciences, primarily in short essays, employing the rhetorical and intellectual skills they have developed during their years at the Geneva School. To accomplish this, we will learn to read with critical attention to an author or speaker’s purpose in writing or speaking, the occasion of his address, the audience being addressed, and the author’s tone. We will gain fluency in writing by regular practice writing essays of persuasion, analysis, and synthesis.

The journey begins with our summer reading of C. S. Lewis’ Till we Have Faces as a myth in which the Christian and classical traditions cohere. Other highlights include the examination of additional works of significance to the Western Tradition which place us squarely in the midst of the ongoing discussion of, and fight to retain, what T. S. Eliot called “the permanent things”—those truths that have defined classical and Christian thought for more than four centuries, as well as frequent and active class discussions about topics of relevance to students’ lives and our annual spring trip to see a Shakespeare play performed at the Orlando Shakespeare Theater.

Enduring Understandings

  • Good reading requires an active and inquisitive mind and a willingness to accept the text in the spirit in which it was offered.
  • Close reading for the AP English Language and Composition exam requires attentiveness to the author’s purpose and to the structures and rhetorical devices he uses to further that purpose.
  • Writing is a process that requires frequent revision and revisiting. Its goal is to communicate clearly and persuasively stories or ideas that have value.
  • Academic writing involves first becoming conversant with a topic, then entering the conversation by responding to what others are saying with a thesis of your own, and arguing that thesis using reasoning and evidence appropriate to your subject and audience.
  • The AP English Language and Composition exam tests three kinds of academic writing: argumentative essays that advance a thesis with clear reasoning and appropriate evidence, analytical essays that explain the means an author uses to further her purpose, and synthetic essays that build an argument incorporating multiple sources that the test provides.
  • Nearly all forms of communication—the spoken or written word, the still or moving image, and others—spring from a context, aim at an audience, and are driven by a purpose. Being aware of this makes you a more discerning reader, listener, or viewer, and a better writer.

History

The overarching aim of history instruction in the rhetoric school is to provide students with a comprehensive historical understanding of themselves (individually and collectively) as Western, American, and Christian, and through application of the art of rhetoric to express their position with certain key questions arising from that identity. While this historical self-understanding provides an integrative framework for their entire Geneva education, students also employ the art of dialectic to identify and critically evaluate the historical origins of the ideas, beliefs, loves, habits, assumptions, and practices that characterize them and their culture in the present. As such, history plays an integral role in the formation of the Christian moral philosophy we seek to cultivate.


WESTERN CIVILIZATION I HONORS
Normally taken in 9th grade
Course Code: 2100460
Teacher: June Huggins

This class will examine the development of the Western World from the late Roman Empire through the Middle Ages, Reformation, and Renaissance (284–1600 AD). We will begin by examining the basic building blocks of a strong society. The class will continually examine these key elements’ presence or lack thereof as empires and kingdoms rise and fall. Our purpose will be to understand, in a simple manner, these defining factors and examine how every strong nation or empire flourishes when key factors are present and ultimately fails when they are not.

We will follow the impact of the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the triumph of the Roman Catholic Church. This triumph allowed for a framework of organization and communication, brilliance, and corruption that would both preserve the church and the knowledge of antiquity for fifteen hundred years and create conflict in due time, to birth the Reformation. In the beginning, the world of the Roman Empire is fairly familiar; organized, technologically advanced, erudite. As we proceed through the Fall of Rome and the emergence of western kingdoms, the world we examine will become increasingly strange and incomprehensible until the Late Middle Ages and Renaissance when man discovered again the importance of ideas, technological advance, literacy and learning so that the process of building our modern world began.

Enduring Understandings

  • At The Geneva School, we strategically look for truth, beauty, and goodness in our subjects. Examining history, we will find that the truth is often ugly and corrupt because man is fallen. However, we will see the hand of God shedding light in the darkness, revealing beauty and goodness, and working above and in spite of fallen mankind.
  • History holds the evidence of God’s actions and plans for his world. Through the study of primary and secondary sources (documents, art, and archaeology), we gain first-hand knowledge of the nature of God and his activity among mankind.
  • History should be studied because it is essential to understand the development of individuals and the society in which we live.
  • History offers the only extensive evidential base to analyze and interpret how societies function and attempt to predict how they will function in the future.
  • Knowing the history of Western civilization is particularly important for us as products of the story of the Western world. We will learn a great deal about our expectations, our thought processes and the manner in which we respond to ideas and events in our world. This holds true on a personal and a civic or communal level.
  • Finally, studying the roots of our own civilization through the lens of the past helps us to see with the clarity of hindsight the strengths and weaknesses of the society in which we now live and may equip us to stand fast, or effect change where needed.

WESTERN CIVILIZATION II HONORS
Normally taken in 10th grade
Course Code: 2109320
Teacher: Dr. Michael Walker

This course explores the history of Western civilization from the mid-fourteenth century to the mid-to-late twentieth century. In other words, this course explores “modernity”—that time period and distinctive way of life, beginning in the Renaissance and extending to our time, characterized by the autonomous, or self-governing, quest of human beings to understand and master the world in order to live more freely, comfortably, and enjoyably within it. Broadly, the course aims to help students identify the historical sources of some of our most deeply-held and taken-for-granted ideas, beliefs, attitudes, and practices. In a sense, then, it promises to help students better explain themselves to themselves, but this is in order that they might begin to understand how they have been shaped and formed as modern people. Such self-awareness of our own cultural formation is essential to discerning the challenges and opportunities that modern Western culture presents to a distinctive Christian faith, life and witness. Put another way, the study of the history of Western Civilization will help students cultivate a vision of Christian faithfulness in our own time.

Success in the course depends greatly on completing assigned readings and substantially participating in class discussions; in addition, students will sit for quizzes and exams, write essays, and give a presentation on a relevant topic of their choice.

Enduring Understandings

  • The standard practice of historians and students of history generally involves reading and analyzing primary and secondary sources, such that the discipline of history can be defined as the interpretation of the (significant) past based on investigation of evidence from and historical scholarship about that past.
  • Historical periodization is the product of historians’ choices as a means of organizing the past in order to make it more accessible and memorable in the present.
  • The story of modern Western history, extending from the Renaissance to the present, may be characterized in terms of increasing secularization, while being narrated in terms of the rise and fall of confidence in autonomous reason in relation to other authorities such as tradition, Christian revelation, and personal experience.
  • The way of life associated with the narrative of modern Western history—modernity—may be characterized by the autonomous quest of human beings to understand and master the world in order to live more freely, comfortably, and enjoyably within it.
  • Knowledge of modern Western history is necessary for understanding ourselves as modern people, that is, as those who participate in a distinctive way of life that has emerged over seven centuries; in other words, accurate self-understanding, individually and collectively, requires knowledge of modern Western history.
  • The acquisition of such cultural self-understanding is crucial for Christians, because it exposes our cultural inheritance—and many of our own deeply held assumptions—to the critique and correction of the Gospel, which is not captive to any human culture. We can then better discern both the challenges and opportunities that modern Western culture presents to a distinctive Christian faith, life, and witness.

UNITED STATES HISTORY HONORS & DUAL CREDIT
Normally taken in 11th grade
Course Code: 2100320 (honors) / AMH1010 & AMH1020 (½ credit each for dual credit) 
Teacher: Dr. Grant Brodrecht

Conducted as a hybrid of lecture and seminar centered on common readings, this course explores United States history from its colonial origins to the present. The overarching question that gives the course coherence and contemporary relevance asks, in the words of the eighteenth-century Frenchman-turned-American, J. Hector St. Jean de Crevecoeur, “What then is the American, this new man?” Or, to put the question slightly differently: What does it mean to be an American? One might answer simply and perhaps unreflectively: “What it means to be an American is to be free.” However, what that means never has been straightforwardly simple. Above all, one must always ask, “Free from what? Free for what?” To further complicate matters, unpacking America’s meaning has varied over the centuries and often has depended on who you ask, so to speak, within a given historical context. In order to get at America’s dynamic meaning, students will explore and discuss a wide array of primary and secondary historical sources, complete several writing assignments, and sit for quizzes and exams.

One particularly important reason for studying American history along those lines is to help students better understand themselves as having been shaped by the past to think and behave in distinctive ways in the present and thereby better position themselves to analytically disentangle the interrelationship between their American and Christian identities. Being American and Christian means that we have a dual heritage, that we are, in other words, members of two “people groups”; thus striving to understand what it has meant to be an American through time assists in discerning the ways in which our American identity meshes with or is in tension with our more basic Christian identity. Given that the United States was and is the creation of human beings, there will be much that is recognizably good and admirable, even while invariably those things will be intertwined with much that often was not so good and not so admirable. It is thus our task to think deeply about this dual heritage—being American and being Christian—in all of its complexity. In addition to being engaging and interesting, that task promises to help students become more conscientious and appreciative Americans while at the same time assist us in our quest to be faithful disciples of Christ.

Enduring Understandings

  • The standard practice of historians and students of history involves reading and analyzing primary and secondary sources, such that history may be defined as the interpretation of the past based on investigation of existing evidence and others’ interpretations.
  • The periodization of American history is the product of historians’ choices, and this is done primarily as a means of organizing the past in order to make it more accessible, meaningful, and memorable in the present.
  • American culture has been characterized by a mix of the sacred and the secular since the nation’s colonial origins.
  • Although liberty (or freedom) is clearly central to any understanding of America’s meaning, that meaning has changed over time and has been ambiguous and contested throughout American history for various political, socio-economic, intellectual, religious, regional, and ethno-cultural reasons.
  • The territorial confines of the United States have a contingent historical character to them, extending from the nation’s colonial origins through the nineteenth century.
  • American history has been punctuated regularly by war since its colonial origins.
  • Knowledge of United States history helps to explain ourselves to ourselves as historical beings; that is, knowledge of United States history assists us in better understanding ourselves in the present as those who participate in a distinctive, taken-for-granted American way of life that has formed over four centuries.
  • Such historical self-understanding can assist the Christian—whose very purpose in life is to love God with one’s entire being and his neighbor as himself—in better discerning the extent to which he or she is (or is not) living as a faithful disciple of Jesus Christ.

AMERICAN SOCIAL THOUGHT AND EXPERIENCE HONORS
Normally taken in 12th grade
Course Code: 2106320 & 2102390 (½ credit each)
Teacher: Dr. Grant Brodrecht

In 1932 the American theologian-philosopher Reinhold Niebuhr observed the following paradox: “The society in which each man lives is at once the basis for, and the nemesis of, that fullness of life which each man seeks.” Niebuhr was alluding to the perennial “problem” of justice, the problem of individuals living together in search of a stable and good life together. This course aims to consider that problem within the context of American democratic republicanism and capitalism. Under that rubric of justice, then, we will explore theoretical and practical issues related to the American way of life, such as the distribution of power and wealth, the search for a common good, and the determination of members’ privileges and responsibilities, rights and liberties, and benefits and burdens within society. Three interrelated questions should guide students throughout the year. First, what is meant by justice? Second, how have Americans in particular, past and present, sought to create a just society? And third, how should a Christian relate to the particular society of which he or she is a member?

The course will combine lecture and seminar and center on various primary and secondary texts that help students think more deeply about the American experience of government and economics. For the government portion of the course, students will hear from the major political theorists in Western history from Plato to the Founding Fathers; for the economics portion of the course, the central text will be Charles Wheelan’s Naked Economics. Success in the course depends significantly on completing assigned readings and participating in class discussions; students will explore and discuss a wide array of texts, complete several writing assignments, and sit for quizzes and exams.

Enduring Understandings

  • The origins of American social thought and experience are deeply rooted in Western history, beginning most immediately with the American colonial and revolutionary experience within the British Empire and stretching back through time to classical antiquity.
  • The system of government created by the US Constitution is a federal republic, with allowance for limited, indirect democratic influence. In a republic, sovereignty theoretically resides in the people (rather than a monarch). In a federal system of government, the exercise of that sovereignty is shared or divided among central, state, and local governments.
  • Though most of the “Founding Fathers” were not Trinitarian Christians, they were not anti-religious. That is, while opposing the establishment of a national religion, they nevertheless agreed that religion was a key source of the virtue that almost all believed was necessary for the long-term vitality of a republic.
  • The United States Constitution created a central government that separated and distributed specific powers among three branches—legislative, executive, and judicial—with each branch designed in part to check and balance the exercise of power by the other branches.
  • The United States Constitution was born of compromise, its process of ratification was vigorously debated, and several interrelated issues—the nature of the federal Union, the role and extent of central governmental power, and the matter of race-based slavery—have remained central to American social life ever since.
  • The Bill of Rights originally placed limits on the exercise of central governmental power (in relation to both the individual and the states); such limits have been applied subsequently to the exercise of state power in relation to the individual.
  • The United States has had a “capitalist” system since its eighteenth-century origins. Capitalism may be defined as an economic, legal, and political system based upon the following: predominantly private ownership of capital; the production of goods and services for profit; free, competitive markets as the primary determinants of prices and quantities for goods, services, and factors of production; and an individual’s right to his or her own labor.
  • American capitalism never has been purely “laissez-faire” (i.e., individuals never have been completely free of government involvement in their economic activities), and thus the US economy currently may be characterized as “mixed.”
  • Throughout the nation’s history Americans have argued about the role and purpose of the central government in relation to the economy; such arguments have been central to the American social experience and provide a substantial basis for understanding the contemporary division between Republican and Democratic parties, between “conservatives” and “liberals.” Government involvement in the economy comes in the form of fiscal, monetary, regulatory, and welfare policies, all of which are theoretically intended to enable the central government to carry out its constitutional responsibilities.
  • Regardless of how a Christian understands his relationship to the specific social context within which he lives, he is never free to ignore or escape that context; rather, the Christian is obligated to think and reflect as deeply as possible about how he will live within it as a faithful disciple of Jesus Christ.

Rhetoric and Christian Thought

Rhetoric is both the power of seeing the available means of persuasion in any given situation and the art of leading souls. As Christians, we have a responsibility to think, speak, and act within our particular situation in ways that are faithful to Scripture and the historic Christian tradition, and that promote the kingdom of God. The aim of this four year sequence of courses is for students to learn and practice the art of rhetoric while also learning how to think according to the truths, tradition, and telos of the Christian faith.


RHETORIC AND CHRISTIAN THOUGHT I
Normally taken in 9th grade
Course Code: 1007350
Teacher: Justin Keller

Rhetoric includes both the ability to find the available means of persuasion in any given situation as well as the ability to lead souls. It has an immediate aim that fits into a larger goal. As Christians, we have a responsibility to think, speak, and act within our daily living in ways that are aligned with Scripture and promote the kingdom of God. It is therefore fitting and beneficial to learn and practice the art of rhetoric while also learning how to think according to the truths, tradition, and telos of the Christian faith.

In providing preparation for the practice of the art of rhetoric, this course will provide an overview of the vocabulary and major ideas of the art. It will then focus on the canon of Invention—the ability to find and formulate arguments—primarily through using the common topics and Aristotle’s four causes. The common topics—Definition, Testimony, Comparison, Relationship, and Circumstance—are the starting places in classical rhetoric for brainstorming material and generating potential arguments. Aristotle’s four causes answer the question of why a thing is what it is—material (what something is made out of), formal (what something is being made into), efficient (what something is made by), and final (what purpose something is made for). Using such tools, students will grow in their ability to generate arguments for defending thesis statements.

Students will also begin to think about the importance of theology as we read excerpts from several Church Fathers in the first semester, and Mere Christianity by C. S. Lewis in the second semester. The Fathers provide entry points into the doctrines of creation, Christology, and the Trinity. In Mere Christianity, students will encounter both deep Christian thought as well as significant skill in rhetoric. Lewis also actively employs the same rhetorical tools about which students are learning, making Lewis a model for students in their own thinking and writing.

Confronting the ideas and assumptions of modernity, which are very often opposed to Christ, requires not only thinking deeply but also expressing one’s thoughts well. By means of class discussion, oral presentation, written analysis and essays, and collaboration amongst other classes, students will learn the arts of rhetoric and theology.

Enduring Understandings

  • Theology forms our minds, our affections, and our wills—we learn theology to love God and to love our neighbor well.
  • We have a responsibility to cultivate and understand the purpose of rhetoric, the art of a good man speaking well, in a distinctly biblical way.
  • The study of rhetoric results in discernment in what we read, hear, and say.
  • By the end of the course, students will be able to understand the three uses of language (ordinary, scientific, and poetic) and the three appeals (logos, ethos, and pathos), as well as the importance of these individually and as part of a whole.
  • As rhetoricians, our aim is to recognize the importance of Invention, the work of exploring all possible content or means of an argument, in an effort to select the best method for developing a strong, persuasive case.
  • Human beings are created to live in accord with a moral law. The recognition of this law shows that God exists and that humans stand judged before him.
  • God solves the divine dilemma as his Son takes on a fully human nature while remaining fully divine in order to live in perfect obedience, die on a cross, and rise from the dead.
  • The aim of Christianity is transformation: We become a new kind of human being as we participate in the means of grace so that we grow in virtue.
  • God exists as one divine being in three persons, distinct but inseparable: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. Out of the overflow of his intra-trinitarian love, God creates ex nihilo and redeems human beings to participate in his love and life.

RHETORIC AND CHRISTIAN THOUGHT II
Normally taken in 10th grade
Course Code: 1001480
Teacher: Nathan Raley

Rhetoric is both the ability to find the available means of persuasion in any given situation and the ability to lead souls. As Christians, we have a responsibility to think, speak, and act in ways that are aligned with Scripture and promote the kingdom of God. Therefore, it is fitting and beneficial to learn and practice the art of rhetoric while also learning how to think according to the truths, tradition, and telos* of the Christian faith.

To help students prepare for and train in the art of rhetoric, this course will focus on judicial (forensic) speech, in which the speaker uses careful reasoning and marshalls appropriate evidence in order to accuse or defend. We will learn what Aristotle and other classical writers taught about this kind of speech, and we will look at contemporary examples of people using rhetoric to defend themselves or to accuse others. Several films, such as 12 Angry Men, will help students see rhetoric in action and better understand the high-stakes situations that call for it. Additionally, the student will learn how to arrange and deliver a speech according to the classical, six parts of an oration.

This course will also introduce the theological themes of soteriology (the study of salvation) and anthropology (the study of being human), giving students exposure to the philosophical understanding of these ideas before turning the greater part of its attention to the ways in which Scripture and the Christian tradition have explained them. What does it mean to be human? What is our purpose in life? And how should we think about suffering and death? We will look to ancient writers such as Plato and the writer of Ecclesiastes before considering what the life of Jesus teaches us about these questions.

The goal of this course is for students to understand and practice the art of rhetoric in a way that emphasizes the skills and habits of reasoning well and speaking well, in light of the Christian faith.

*Telos: the ultimate object or aim; the “end” to which something leads or ought to lead

Enduring Understandings

  • The canons of rhetoric are invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery. These serve as standards and guidelines by which the art is properly practiced.
    Classical rhetoricians distinguished three types or categories of orations and persuasive discourse. They are judicial (forensic), ceremonial (epideictic), and deliberative (political).
  • Judicial rhetoric concerns accusing or defending for the sake of upholding truth and justice. It relies heavily upon the speaker’s ability to reason and to justify his or her beliefs.
  • The modes of persuasion—ethos, logos, and pathos—correspond directly to speaker, speech, and audience. Ethos concerns the credibility of the speaker, logos concerns the rational appeal of the speech, and pathos concerns the emotions of the audience.
  • For the purposes of judicial speech (of which most academic writing is generally a part), logos is the most important mode of persuasion. While the skills of logic/dialectic are crucial to the rhetorician’s ability to reason persuasively, they must be employed in a way that is suitable to the particular rhetorical situation and audience.
  • Arrangement in classical rhetoric follows the six parts of a discourse—introduction, statement of fact, thesis and division, confirmation, refutation, and conclusion.
  • Sophistry pretends to be rhetoric but is actually no art at all. Rather, it is a form of pandering with the goal of exploitation and does not engage properly in the modes of persuasion.
  • As the study of salvation, soteriology is the fundamental question underlying all philosophical and theological pursuits. Humans are self-conscious of their own finitude and are constantly seeking how to live in light of their impending death.
  • As the study of what it means to be human, anthropology is inextricably connected with soteriology. The Christian understandings of both the imago dei and the Fall are crucial for understanding who we are, what we desire, and how we should live.
  • Salvation understood in its three major parts—justification, sanctification, and glorification—is necessary for a full understanding of what it means to be human and how to live in a fallen world.

RHETORIC AND CHRISTIAN THOUGHT III
Normally taken in 11th grade
Course Code: 2120910
Teacher: Dr. Michael Walker

Rhetoric is not simply a technique for effective communication; it is the liberal art of discovering the available means of persuasion given the dynamics of our rhetorical situation and the needs of our audience. As a liberal art, it sets us free to use language fruitfully and responsibly. As the art of persuasion, it cultivates the basic human ability to create worlds and lead souls through speech.

Because we are always leading people with our words, we must learn to use language wisely and well. This is especially true for Christians, who are called to love their neighbors as themselves. To lead souls wisely we need both skill with words and practical, ethical judgment. This means training in the art of rhetoric as well as diligent study of the Scriptures, the Christian tradition, and the great authors—particularly those who have graced the English language.

The rhetorical focus of this course is ceremonial speech. Its aim is not simply to instruct, but to capture the hearts and minds of an audience with a vision of honor and beauty. Hence ceremonial speech is particularly concerned with style—the skill of crafting language in order to move and delight an audience as well as to teach them. The Christian thought focus of the course is ecclesiology. The hope is that the study of the Church and its cultural life will help us engage the problem of human community as it has preoccupied philosophers and politicians throughout the ages.

It is easy to imagine that style and ecclesiology—construction of ceremonial speech and reflection upon the Church and human community—are unrelated subjects of study. This is not the case. As St. Augustine argues in the City of God, it is the pursuit of common goods and, above all, common loves, that make a people. A shared vision of the good life—not merely walls, boundaries, or political definitions—marks out a particular people. In seeking to move people with a vision of honor and beauty, therefore, ceremonial speech is always calling people into a community. The Church seeks to form a people set apart by the love of God and neighbor (before self) and the pursuit of Christ’s kingdom (before the goods of this world).

Enduring Understandings

  • Style is the canon of classical rhetoric devoted to selecting words and arranging sentences and phrases that best fit our rhetorical purposes, the dynamics of the situation, and the needs of our audience.
  • Ceremonial speech is designed, not simply to instruct, but to delight and to move an audience with a vision of honor and beauty. The rhetorical purpose of ceremonial speech is to call an audience to love and to admire what is good, honorable, fitting.
  • One cultivates style organically by reading great texts and listening to eloquent speakers, copying the best passages as commonplaces, and committing them to memory.
  • The Church is the body of Christ existing through time and throughout the world. As St. Paul implies in Philippians 3, the Church is a colony of people whose citizenship is in heaven, and who eagerly await the imperial visit of their savior, the Lord Jesus Christ. As such, the Church has a unique cultural life, embodying a distinct vision of the good life.
  • Worship is not only or even essentially a function of personal spirituality; it shapes our understanding of God and of ourselves in relation to him and to one another. The cultural life of the Church is most fully and winsomely on display in her communal worship.
  • Ideas and practices that come from the most influential political philosophies of modernity have shaped what we believe about human beings and human community, both within and without the Church. Because these ideas and practices are often at odds with the Scriptures and Christian tradition, they must be re-framed in light of a robust Christian ecclesiology.

RHETORIC AND CHRISTIAN THOUGHT IV
Normally taken in 12th grade
Course Code: 2120915
Teacher: Nathan Raley

Rhetoric is both the ability to find the available means of persuasion in any given situation and the ability to lead souls. As Christians, we have a responsibility to think, speak, and act in ways that are aligned with Scripture and promote the kingdom of God. Therefore, it is fitting and beneficial to learn and practice the art of rhetoric while also learning how to think according to the truths, tradition, and telos* of the Christian faith.

In his analysis of our contemporary political landscape, Daniel Layman writes, “The most basic problem we face…is a breakdown of the deliberative dimension of democracy. Deliberation matters because it has the potential to secure our freedom by making us coauthors of the laws we live under.” The rhetorical training in this course will focus on deliberative speech, which emphasizes moving an audience toward responsible action in accordance with what is good and fitting. Students will learn how to use the canons of classical rhetoric as steps in the composition process as they construct their own deliberative arguments and deliver them in both oral and written form. They will also learn the importance of listening to others and giving due consideration to their views before attempting, when necessary, an honest and fair rebuttal or counterproposal.

This training will culminate in a well-researched written senior thesis and an original oration presented according to the classical arrangement and defended before faculty members, parents, and peers. Seniors will practice the skills of rhetoric through speeches (such as those to be delivered at the Senior Dinner in the fall), classroom discussions, and writing. Extensive time will be spent in class reading, drafting, and practicing both oral and written persuasion.

As the culminating course in the study of Christian thought, RCT IV also brings students into contact with several aspects of theology and philosophy, especially eschatology (the study of the last things) and ethics. Together we will ask questions about our purpose in life as the body of Christ, about God’s kingdom and reign and the part we play in it; about what constitutes the good life for an individual or a culture. The goal of this course is for students to understand and practice the art of rhetoric in a way that emphasizes the skills and habits of reasoning well and speaking well, in light of the Christian faith—with a fully-orbed vision of the glory of God and human flourishing.

*Telos: the ultimate object or aim; the “end” to which something leads or ought to lead

Enduring Understandings

  • All language is “sermonic,” in that it is never neutral and is always assertive, shaping reality for its hearers. Therefore, we have a moral imperative to use words wisely, ethically, and skillfully, to lead the souls of our hearers toward goodness, truth, and beauty.
  • Deliberative/political rhetoric concerns moving the audience toward responsible action in light of what is good and/or useful.
  • For the purposes of deliberative speech, ethos is perhaps the most important mode of persuasion. It relies heavily upon the speaker’s practical wisdom.
  • The canons of memory and delivery (memoria and pronuntiatio) focus on aspects of persuasion that concern oral discourse. When delivering a speech or engaging in dialog, the ability to remember one’s points and to speak them in a clear and effective way makes the rhetor more persuasive.
  • When an argument is “delivered” in written form, the rhetor’s adherence to conventions of formatting, usage, and documentation help establish her credibility.
  • As a canon of rhetoric, style (elocutio) is concerned with choosing words and crafting sentences that best fit the audience, occasion, subject matter, and rhetorical purpose of a discourse. The most important element of style, for our purposes, is clarity. Clear and elegant writing requires pre-writing and rewriting.
  • Ethics and eschatology are not merely theological categories, narrowly concerned with virtuous behavior and the end times. They are essential areas of study connected with the Church’s mission in, and relationship to, the world.
  • God calls to himself—and sanctifies—a people, not just a great number of individuals (Ephesians 5: 25-26). Through the church primarily, God works to renew creation and the image of God that has been distorted by sin.
  • Christian discipleship requires faithful participation in God’s kingdom. This in turn requires reckoning with the often pernicious influence of modern philosophy on our worldview and adopting a biblical vision of the new heavens and the new earth, under the reign of Christ, who reconciles heaven and earth.
  • Faithful participation in God’s kingdom also requires a recognition of the fact that the Gospel is always embedded in some cultural form. It requires the Christian to ask: how can I approach my culture with the spirit of hope, joy, and affirmation that is central to the Gospel, and yet be obedient to God’s commands?
  • Faithful participation in God’s kingdom requires us to examine our loves. As James K.A. Smith says, “We are what we love, and as creatures made in the image of God, humans are characterized by an essential desire that defines who we are.” What we love is largely shaped by our habits and cultural practices.

Foreign Languages

The acquisition of languages, both classical and modern, has been a hallmark of classical liberal arts education from the time of the European renaissance. The desire to converse with the Latin and Greek sources of Western civilization, as well as with the people and works of the great contemporary cultures, lies near the heart of liberal education. To that end, students are required to study a foreign language at Geneva through their junior year, though many continue to do so in their senior year as well. From fourth through eighth grades all students study Latin, while beginning in ninth grade, they may elect to continue in Latin or begin the study of Ancient Greek or modern Spanish or French.


LATIN III
Normally taken in 9th grade
Course Code: 0706320
Teacher: Nick DeGroot

This course reviews the foundations of Latin vocabulary and grammar covered in previous years and continues the systematic study of the Latin language both in morphology (i.e. how words are formed) and syntax (i.e. how the words go together). Our systematic study will continue to be, as last year, in the traditional method of memorizing vocabulary and paradigms; parsing and declining words; applying the important work of memorization in the translation of Latin into English, Latin into (other) Latin, and composing phrases and sentences in Latin; and memorizing passages of Latin literature. We may have additional readings, which will come from sources other than the textbook, all of which readings will serve both to reinforce the vocabulary and grammatical concepts and to illuminate the classical Roman world as the backdrop for our study of the Latin language.

Enduring Understandings

  • To fully engage the great literature that we have inherited from our past is truly to encounter those people who have shaped the present world in which we live. The more we encounter our forebears, the greater become our acquaintance with them and the likelihood of gaining wisdom from their struggles with the question of what it means to be human. And for the western world no literature is more fundamental, no people more influential, than those of the Classical world (viz., Greece and Rome, ca. eighth century BC–fourth century AD).
  • In the words of T. S. Eliot, “we are all, so far as we inherit the civilization of Europe, still citizens of the Roman Empire, and time has not yet proved Vergil wrong when he wrote nec tempora pono: imperium sine fine dedi.”
  • Meaning is more fully expressed in clauses than in individual words; the arrangement of clauses is what constitutes a sentence. A Latin word’s position within its clause does something (e.g., denote emphasis) rather than convey (syntactical) meaning.
  • Translating—whether from Latin into English or vice versa—is the art of communicating so faithfully as possible the expression of an idea, with attention not only to the meaning of individual words but also to their relationship to one another as expressed by their arrangement in clauses, as well as to such considerations as semantic range, connotation, and idiomatic usage.

LATIN IV
Normally taken in 10th grade
Course Code: 0706330
Teacher: Nick DeGroot

This course reviews the Latin vocabulary and grammar covered in previous years and continues the study of the Latin language both in morphology and syntax. Our systematic study will comprise, as in Latin III, in the traditional method of memorizing vocabulary and grammar-paradigms; parsing and declining; and translating Latin into English. The focus of this course will move beyond Latin-English translation to include more Latin paraphrasing (in Latin) and Latin composition. Moreover, in addition to our written Latin exercises, we shall use begin to develop our ear for the language with oral/aural exercises; all of which exercises will serve both to reinforce the vocabulary and grammatical concepts and to illuminate the classical Roman world as the backdrop for our study of the Latin language.

Enduring Understandings

  • To fully engage the great literature that we have inherited from our past is truly to encounter those people who have shaped the present world in which we live. The more we encounter our forebears, the greater become our acquaintance with them and the likelihood of gaining wisdom from their struggles with the question of what it means to be human. And for the western world no literature is more fundamental, no people more influential, than those of the Classical world (viz., Greece and Rome, ca. eighth century BC–fourth century AD).
  • In the words of T. S. Eliot, “we are all, so far as we inherit the civilization of Europe, still citizens of the Roman Empire, and time has not yet proved Vergil wrong when he wrote nec tempora pono: imperium sine fine dedi.”
  • Meaning is more fully expressed in clauses than in individual words; the arrangement of clauses is what constitutes a sentence. A Latin word’s position within its clause does something (e.g., denote emphasis) rather than convey (syntactical) meaning.
  • Translating—whether from Latin into English or vice versa—is the art of communicating so faithfully as possible the expression of an idea, with attention not only to the meaning of individual words but also to their relationship to one another as expressed by their arrangement in clauses, as well as to such considerations as semantic range, connotation, and idiomatic usage.

LATIN V HONORS
Normally taken in 11th grade
Course Code: 0706340
Teacher: Nick DeGroot

This course reviews the Latin vocabulary and grammar covered in previous years and continues the study of the Latin language both in morphology and syntax; and it serves as a preparation for the reading of the AP syllabus in the senior year. Our study will continue to be in the traditional grammar-translation method (as in previous years), but we shall move even further than in Latin IV away from a primarily passive understanding of the language to more active knowledge through our increased focus on generating Latin (largely written) and understanding it aurally. As in previous years, all these exercises are designed, as we prepare for sustained reading of classical Latin literature, to help us acquaint ourselves better with the language and lives of the ancient Romans.

Enduring Understandings

  • To fully engage the great literature that we have inherited from our past is truly to encounter those people who have shaped the present world in which we live. The more we encounter our forebears, the greater become our acquaintance with them and the likelihood of gaining wisdom from their struggles with the question of what it means to be human. And for the western world no literature is more fundamental, no people more influential, than those of the Classical world (viz., Greece and Rome, ca. eighth century BC—fourth century AD).
  • In the words of T. S. Eliot, “we are all, so far as we inherit the civilization of Europe, still citizens of the Roman Empire, and time has not yet proved Vergil wrong when he wrote nec tempora pono: imperium sine fine dedi.
  • Meaning is more fully expressed in clauses than in individual words; the arrangement of clauses is what constitutes a sentence. A Latin word’s position within its clause does something (e.g., denote emphasis) rather than convey (syntactical) meaning.
  • Translating—whether from Latin into English or vice versa—is the art of communicating so faithfully as possible the expression of an idea, with attention not only to the meaning of individual words but also to their relationship to one another as expressed by their arrangement in clauses, as well as to such considerations as semantic range, connotation, and idiomatic usage.

AP LATIN
Normally taken in 12th grade
Course Code: 0706370
Minimum Prerequisites: Latin V (B+), Cum GPA (3.0)
Teacher: Nick DeGroot

This course aims at an in-depth study of the Latin language through the masterful prose and poetry of Caesar and Vergil, respectively. In preparation for the AP Latin exam, the course will be structured to enable students to complete the entire required reading list as delineated in the College Board AP Latin course description. Accordingly, students will discuss the major themes which these authors develop in their respective works and the techniques they use to do so. In order to become better readers of Caesar, students will develop their understanding of the historical backdrop to Caesar’s commentaries on his wars in Gaul, i.e., key events of the so-called “Roman revolution”; the biography of Caesar himself; and the basic geography of Italy, Gaul, and Britain. To become better readers of the Aeneid, students will develop their understanding of the epic genre; their literary background-knowledge of the Aeneid, including both the Trojan War saga and the characters and plot of the Aeneid itself; their historical background-knowledge of the events which influenced the writing of the Aeneid, i.e., Rome of the first century BC and the coming of the “Golden Age of Augustus”; their familiarity with dactylic hexameter and major figures of speech; and their knowledge of basic Latin grammar and familiarity with poetic exceptions and special case-usage. Additionally, students may have occasion to develop their general facility with the Latin language through the practice of reading selected passages of literature at sight.

Enduring Understandings

  • To fully engage the great literature that we have inherited from our past is truly to encounter those people who have shaped the present world in which we live. The more we encounter our forebears, the greater become our acquaintance with them and the likelihood of gaining wisdom from their struggles with the question of what it means to be human. And for the western world no literature is more fundamental, no people more influential, than those of the Classical world (i.e., Greece and Rome, ca. eighth century BC—fourth century AD).
  • In the words of T. S. Eliot, “… we are all, so far as we inherit the civilization of Europe, still citizens of the Roman Empire, and time has not yet proved Vergil wrong when he wrote nec tempora pono: imperium sine fine dedi.
  • Meaning is more fully expressed in clauses than in individual words; the arrangement of clauses is what constitutes a sentence. A Latin word’s position within its clause does something (e.g., denote emphasis) rather than convey (syntactical) meaning.
  • Translating—whether from Latin into English or vice versa—is the art of communicating so faithfully as possible the expression of an idea, with attention not only to the meaning of individual words but also to their relationship to one another as expressed by their arrangement in clauses, as well as to such considerations as semantic range, connotation, and idiomatic usage.

GREEK I
Normally taken in 9th grade
Course Code: 0703380
Teacher: Matt Frazer

Χαίρετε! Ὑπερφυῶς ἥδομαι ἐπὶ τῷ ὑμᾶς μετ’ ἐμοῦ τὴν Ἑλλήνων φωνὴν μανθάνειν!

Welcome to the first year of Ancient Greek! There’s something very special about this language. For one thing, it has a beautiful alphabet marked by finesse and precision. For another, it has a way of expressing itself in patterns and perspectives that are so mind-bending and mind-stretching that it makes other languages look artificial and made-up. But besides these it also contains writings that consistently look at the world from a certain perspective—that perspective being beauty. And this explains in part why Christians have been so interested in what the Greeks said and how they said it. It clues us in to that often forgotten aspect of God’s relationship with his people—how beautiful a thing is God’s work in creation and in the redemption of his people through Christ.

How do we reach far enough into the language to enjoy this new perspective? We become them. We use their language. So, in year one, we learn how the Greeks spoke (alphabet), we learn what the Greeks called this or that (vocabulary), we learn how the Greeks conversed and wrote (grammar), and we learn what the Greeks thought (reading). Until science and technology develop a working mechanism for time travel, using the Greek language is the best and only way to go back in time and live, speak, and think as the Greeks.

Enduring Understandings

  • Φωνὴ ἡ Ἑλληνική ἐστιν: Greek is a language! People once lived and had all their human experiences in Greek. Let’s try to realize that. At first it will seem like a puzzle to crack or decipher, but our goal is to see it as a language.
  • Ἡ Ἀγγλικὴ τῇ Ἑλληνικῇ πολὺ ὀφείλει: A large part of English is in fact Greek, in two ways. English has many, many loan words from Greek (derivatives) and many words in common with Greek (cognates). Therefore, the more you understand Greek, the more you understand English.
  • Ἡ γραμματικὴ οὐκ ἔστιν ἡμετέρα ἐχθρά: Grammar is not our enemy. It is the code behind the program. It makes the language work. One bug can ruin a whole program. In the same way, faulty grammar messes up both your meaning and the writer’s meaning—and confusion ensues.
  • Σοὶ τὴν Ἑλληνικὴν ζωοποιητέον: Greek is something you hear, speak, write, read, understand—not just translate. You must make it your own, you must own the forms, not just identify them.
  • Χρῆμα κάλλους ἡ Ἑλληνική: Greek won’t come to you; you’ve got to come to it. It requires work. But it’s the kind of work one does to learn an instrument. Learn, practice and practice what you learn and soon … you’re making BEAUTIFUL MUSIC!!!

GREEK II
Normally taken in 10th grade
Course Code: 0703390
Teacher: Matt Frazer

Χαίρετε! Ὑπερφυῶς ἥδομαι ἐπὶ τῷ ὑμᾶς μετ’ ἐμοῦ τὴν Ἑλλήνων φωνὴν μανθάνειν!

Welcome to your second year of Ancient Greek! There’s something very special about this language. For one thing, it maps some of the most significant events in human history. For another, it has a way of expressing itself in patterns and perspectives that are so mind-bending and mind-stretching that it makes other languages look artificial and made-up. But besides these it also contains writings that consistently look at the world from a certain perspective—that perspective being beauty. The Greeks were always talking about τὸ καλόν—it’s καλόν to do this, or πρέπον to do that. And this explains in part why Christians have been so interested in what the Greeks said and how they said it. It clues us in to that often forgotten aspect of God’s relationship with his people—how beautiful a thing is God’s work in creation and in the redemption of his people through Christ.

How do we reach far enough into the language to enjoy this new perspective? We become them. We use their language. So, in year two, we continue learning how the Greeks spoke (pronouncing, hearing, speaking), what the Greeks called this or that (vocabulary), how the Greeks conversed and wrote (grammar), and what the Greeks thought (reading). Until science and technology develop a working mechanism for time travel, using the Greek language is the best and only way to go back in time and live, speak, and think as the Greeks.

Enduring Understandings

  • Φωνὴ ἡ Ἑλληνική ἐστιν: Greek is a language! People once lived and had all their human experiences in Greek. Let’s try to realize that. At first it will seem like a puzzle to crack or decipher, but our goal is to see it as a language.
  • Ἡ Ἀγγλικὴ τῇ Ἑλληνικῇ πολὺ ὀφείλει: A large part of English is in fact Greek, in two ways. English has many, many loan words from Greek (derivatives) and many words in common with Greek (cognates). Therefore, the more you understand Greek, the more you understand English.
  • Ἡ γραμματικὴ οὐκ ἔστιν ἡμετέρα ἐχθρά: Grammar is not our enemy. It is the code behind the program. It makes the language work. One bug can ruin a whole program. In the same way, faulty grammar messes up both your meaning and the writer’s meaning—and confusion ensues.
  • Σοὶ τὴν Ἑλληνικὴν ζωοποιητέον: Greek is something you hear, speak, write, read, understand—not just translate. You must make it your own, you must own the forms, not just identify them.
  • Χρῆμα κάλλους ἡ Ἑλληνική: Greek won’t come to you; you’ve got to come to it. It requires work. But it’s the kind of work one does to learn an instrument. Learn, practice and practice what you learn and soon … you’re making BEAUTIFUL MUSIC!!!

GREEK III HONORS
Normally taken in 11th grade
Course Code: 0703340
Teacher: Matt Frazer

Ἕτοιμοί ἐστε δήπου πορρωτέρω τε τῆς Ἑλλήνων φωνῆς προβαίνειν καὶ τῶν γραμμάτων αὐτῶν γεύεσθαι! Ἐλπίζω γέ τοι ἐγώ.

Welcome to your third year of Ancient Greek! There’s something very special about this language. For one thing, it maps some of the most significant events in human history. For another, it has a way of expressing itself in patterns and perspectives that are so mind-bending and mind-stretching that it makes other languages look artificial and made-up. But besides these it also contains writings that consistently look at the world from a certain perspective—that perspective being beauty. The Greeks were always talking about τὸ καλόν—it’s καλόν to do this, or πρέπον to do that. And this explains in part why Christians have been so interested in what the Greeks said and how they said it. It clues us in to that often forgotten aspect of God’s relationship with his people—how beautiful a thing is God’s work in creation and in the redemption of his people through Christ.

How do we reach far enough into the language to enjoy this new perspective? We become them. We use their language. So, in year three, we continue learning how the Greeks spoke (pronouncing, hearing, speaking), what the Greeks called this or that (vocabulary), how the Greeks conversed and wrote (grammar), and what the Greeks thought (reading). And on this last note, reading, you’ll have the chance this year to get a taste of some authentic Greek writers, such as Aesop, Theophrastus, Lucian, and more!

Enduring Understandings

  • Φωνὴ ἡ Ἑλληνική ἐστιν: Greek is a language! People once lived and had all their human experiences in Greek. Let’s try to realize that. At first it will seem like a puzzle to crack or decipher, but our goal is to see it as a language.
  • Ἡ Ἀγγλικὴ τῇ Ἑλληνικῇ πολὺ ὀφείλει: A large part of English is in fact Greek, in two ways. English has many, many loan words from Greek (derivatives) and many words in common with Greek (cognates). Therefore, the more you understand Greek, the more you understand English.
  • Ἡ γραμματικὴ οὐκ ἔστιν ἡμετέρα ἐχθρά: Grammar is not our enemy. It is the code behind the program. It makes the language work. One bug can ruin a whole program. In the same way, faulty grammar messes up both your meaning and the writer’s meaning—and confusion ensues.
  • Σοὶ τὴν Ἑλληνικὴν ζωοποιητέον: Greek is something you hear, speak, write, read, understand—not just translate. You must make it your own, you must own the forms, not just identify them.
  • Χρῆμα κάλλους ἡ Ἑλληνική: Greek won’t come to you; you’ve got to come to it. It requires work. But it’s the kind of work one does to learn an instrument. Learn, practice and practice what you learn and soon … you’re making BEAUTIFUL MUSIC!!!

GREEK IV HONORS
Normally taken in 12th grade
Course Code: 0703350
Teacher: Matt Frazer

Χαίρετε! Ἄγε δὴ ἐπιθῶμεν τῇ Ἑλληνικῇ ὑμῶν παιδείᾳ τὴν πασῶν βελτίστην κορωνίδα!!!

Welcome to the fourth year of Ancient Greek, where the focus is on the reading of Greek literature in the original. Whether it’s a demi-god with superhuman strength, and the wrath to match, or an actual Macedonian teenager who conquered the known world; a city that decided to be a self-governing state or a city that decided to militarize; an orator who determined the way Europe would write and speak for centuries or a gospel that carried its message of salvation to the ends of the earth, Greek literature has something for everybody!

This year’s Greek IV will focus on the reading of the New Testament, specifically the Gospel of John. Both the linguistic and theological aspects of the text will be explored, and supplemental passages from the Septuagint and other sources will be engaged. Vocabulary and grammar will be reviewed as it arises in the reading of the text.

Enduring Understandings

  • Φωνὴ ἡ Ἑλληνική ἐστιν: Greek is a language! People once lived and had all their human experiences in Greek. Let’s try to realize that. At first it will seem like a puzzle to crack or decipher, but our goal is to see it as a language.
  • Ἡ Ἀγγλικὴ τῇ Ἑλληνικῇ πολὺ ὀφείλει: A large part of English is in fact Greek, in two ways. English has many, many loan words from Greek (derivatives) and many words in common with Greek (cognates). Therefore, the more you understand Greek, the more you understand English.
  • Ἡ γραμματικὴ οὐκ ἔστιν ἡμετέρα ἐχθρά: Grammar is not our enemy. It is the code behind the program. It makes the language work. One bug can ruin a whole program. In the same way, faulty grammar messes up both your meaning and the writer’s meaning—and confusion ensues.
  • Σοὶ τὴν Ἑλληνικὴν ζωοποιητέον: Greek is something you hear, speak, write, read, understand—not just translate. You must make it your own, you must own the forms, not just identify them.
  • Χρῆμα κάλλους ἡ Ἑλληνική: Greek won’t come to you; you’ve got to come to it. It requires work. But it’s the kind of work one does to learn an instrument. Learn, practice and practice what you learn and soon … you’re making BEAUTIFUL MUSIC!!!

FRENCH I
Normally taken in 9th grade
Course Code: 0701320
Teacher: Tamara Molyneaux

In language learning, we experience how a people’s language is an expression of its culture. Our class itself will develop a culture as we collect shared experiences with each other. These new ways of expressing ourselves and relating to each other with these new words and ways will become entrenched to the proportion that we dedicate to thinking, speaking, and practicing French.

French I begins the process of language acquisition in a classroom. For most students, French class is their first exposure to learning a living language. While it would be better if we could learn French in France, we will try to find organic ways to acquire and assimilate new words, phrases, and grammar. We do this by making stories, singing songs, drawing pictures, and acting out skits, all in order to find ways to give these foreign words a home in our American consciousness. Highlights of classes are birthday parties, acting out stories, Christmas caroling, and games like “Qui suis-je” and “Qui, Madame, moi madame?

What I love about learning languages is that it gives us an immediate inroad into the lives of strangers. When reading the Old Testament, I am always amazed at how much is said about the treatment of “strangers in your midst.” Who better than us to be welcoming and loving to those who are different than we are? What better way to do that than to speak their language?

Enduring Understandings

  • French I focuses on listening and imitating. We will train our ears to be able to hear the difference between our native sounds and inflections and those of French.
  • French I sets the stage for a learning atmosphere characterized by humility and risk taking so that students imitate the new sounding words with confidence and a healthy sense of humor.
  • French embodies the cultural representative of a people who contributed to Western civilization’s historic, artistic, linguistic, and culinary identity.
  • French I introduces students to the aural beauty of the language through the memorization of Scripture passages and songs.

FRENCH II
Normally taken in 10th grade
Course Code: 0701330
Teacher: Tamara Molyneaux

In language learning, we experience the fact that a people’s language is an expression of its culture. Our class itself has begun to develop its own culture as we collect shared experiences with each other. These new ways of expressing ourselves and relating to each other with these new words and ways will become entrenched to the proportion that we dedicate to thinking, speaking, and practicing French.

French II continues the process of language acquisition in a classroom. This year we’ll dive further into some of the grammar that we began in French I. We’ll continue to do this in a way that is as organic as possible outside of a French speaking country by making stories, singing songs, drawing pictures, and acting out skits; all in order to find ways to give these foreign words a home in our American consciousness. Highlights of classes are birthday parties, acting out stories, Christmas caroling, and games like “Qui suis-je” and “Qui, Madame, moi madame?

What I love about learning languages is that it gives us an immediate inroad into the lives of strangers. When reading the Old Testament, I am always amazed at how much is said about the treatment of “strangers in your midst.” Who better than us to be welcoming and loving to those who are different than we are? What better way to do that than to speak their language?

Enduring Understandings

  • French II students can narrate stories about themselves and others in the past and the present tense.
  • French II centers on producing French orally through conversations, narrating stories, and recitation.
  • French II increases the students’ love of the beauty of spoken French through the memorization of French poetry and songs.
  • French embodies the culture representative of a people who contributed to Western civilization’s historic, artistic, linguistic, and culinary identity.
  • Learning a different language gives us the opportunity to practice loving those different than we are by meeting them where they are.

FRENCH III HONORS
Normally taken in 11th grade
Course Code: 0701340
Teacher: Tamara Molyneaux

In language learning, we experience the fact that a people’s language is an expression of its culture. Even our class has developed its own micro-culture as we have collected and shared experiences with each other. These new ways of expressing ourselves and relating to each other with these new words and ways will become entrenched to the proportion that we dedicate to thinking, speaking, and practicing French.

In French III we start to experience some of the benefits of our language acquisition. We get to read French texts like Le Petit Nicholas. Our activities range from creating stories (written and oral), making movies, and Christmas caroling, to telling our own stories, playing games, and eating together. With the level of language you now possess, we have a limitless amount of cultural activity, artifacts, history, and literature to learn about and discuss.

What I love about learning languages is that it gives us an immediate inroad into the lives of strangers. When reading the Old Testament, I am always amazed at how much is said about the treatment of “strangers in your midst.” Who better than us to be welcoming and loving to those who are different than we are? What better way to do that than to speak their language?

Enduring Understandings

  • As proficiency in French increases, we are more able to discuss abstract ideas and themes and interact with native French speakers face to face, in texts, and in written correspondence.
  • When acquiring a language, our knowledge of and participation in the cultures native to that language increases. This enables us to acquire new relationships and points of reference that stretch us personally and relationally so that we begin to embody unity in diversity. In French III we participate with various French authors such as Molière, Sempé, Pascal, and La Fontaine.
  • Having been exposed to a wide variety of French vocabulary and grammatical structures, limitations decrease and opportunities for expression both in oral and written communication increase.
  • French embodies the culture representative of a people who contributed to Western civilization’s historic, artistic, linguistic, and culinary identity.

FRENCH IV HONORS
Normally taken in 12th grade
Course Code: 0701350
Teacher: Tamara Molyneaux

In language learning, we experience the fact that a people’s language is an expression of its culture. Even our class has developed a culture as we have collected and shared experiences with each other. These new ways of expressing ourselves and relating to each other with these new words and ways will become entrenched to the proportion that we dedicate to thinking, speaking, and practicing French.

In French IV we get to reap some of the benefits of our language learning. We get to read texts in French like Les Misèrables and The Chronicles of Narnia. Our activities range from creating stories (written and oral) and Christmas caroling, to telling our own stories, playing games, and eating together. With the level of language you now possess we have a limitless amount of cultural activity, artifacts, history, and literature to learn about and discuss.

What I love about learning languages is that it gives us an immediate inroad into the lives of strangers. When reading the Old Testament, I am always amazed at how much is said about the treatment of “strangers in your midst.” Who better than us to be welcoming and loving to those who are different than we are? What better way to do that than to speak their language?

Enduring Understandings

  • When acquiring a language, our knowledge of and participation in the cultures native to that language increases. This enables us to acquire new relationships and points of reference that stretch us personally and relationally so that we begin to embody unity in diversity as we read authors such as Hugo, Molière, and St. Exupéry.
  • Having learned the full gamut of tenses and a wide array of vocabulary, limitations decrease and opportunities for expression both in oral and written communication increase so that we can read French classics, enjoy the visual arts of French cinematography and drama, and listen to French music in the original language.
  • French IV is conducted in French and spotlights reading and writing since it is our best way of interacting with the French culture without being in a French speaking community.
  • Through memorization of fables, poems, and songs we solidify our grasp of the most enduring literary contributions of French authors and ensure their legacy in our own lives.
    French embodies the culture representative of a people who contributed to Western civilization’s historic, artistic, linguistic, and culinary identity.

SPANISH I
Normally taken in 9th grade
Course Code: 0708340
Teacher: Susan Hering

How can I use Spanish to connect with the people around me? What are the ways that Spanish has already influenced me? Does learning Spanish relate in any way to the other courses that I study? Can I use my study of Spanish to bring depth to my understanding of God and the beauty of his creation? Will I embrace opportunities to take what I learn and use it in the real world? These are some of the questions that should guide each student’s purpose for studying Spanish this year.

In order to accomplish these purposes, students will be involved in a variety of tasks designed to heighten understanding of written and spoken Spanish, the people who speak it and where Spanish is spoken. We will enjoy a number of virtual field trips and create cultural experiences in class to enhance our understanding of these foreign worlds. We will feast with the faithful in celebration of Epiphany and journey along the route of El Cid as he conquers the Moors and honors his king.

Our journey toward language acquisition requires that the students work on the following skills: learning introductory vocabulary, grammar, and syntax, building foundational skills in reading, speaking, writing and understanding spoken Spanish, participating in verbal exercises designed to develop accurate pronunciation, including memorization/recitation. They will practice conversation and make oral presentations. They will be examined and graded for accuracy in grammar, reading and written skills, pronunciation, and general knowledge. Students will learn about Spanish history and culture by exploring the rich tradition of legends and myths in Spanish literature.

Enduring Understandings

  • Language is acquired through progressive improvement in four areas: reading, writing, speaking and listening.
  • Spanish I instruction focuses on the basic building blocks of vocabulary and present tense verb conjugations.
  • Practicing aloud is necessary to train the ear for sounds particular to the target language.
    Training for accuracy in writing allows for written and spoken production with fewer errors.
  • Studying Spanish history and reading The Poem of the Cid provide two ways to make connections with other disciplines.
  • Knowing the basic geography of the Spanish speaking world provides an understanding of the impact of Spanish on the world.
  • Learning a language elicits empathy for the foreigner who is learning English.

SPANISH II
Normally taken in 10th grade
Course Code: 0708350
Teacher: Susan Hering

What will I learn in Spanish II that will bring me closer to connecting with Spanish speakers in the world around me? Can I expect to converse with native speakers because I am in this class? How does learning Spanish and about Spanish speakers help me to understand the complex issues that surround our neighbor Mexico and its relationship with the US?

In Spanish II, we will spend some time focusing on our neighbor, Mexico, gaining an understanding of the complexities of Mexican immigration to the US and what shapes our perceptions of the Mexican people. We will encounter the mysterious blending of religious traditions in El Día de los Muertos and experience the authentic flavors of Mexican cuisine. Julio will show us how a young orphan manages in small-town Mexico as he awaits the protection of his angel. Students may begin to differentiate the accents of the Mexican speaker and the Spanish (from Spain) speaker.

Students will add to their foundation from Spanish I by participating in the following: learning intermediate vocabulary, grammar, and syntax, continuing to build foundational skills in reading, speaking, writing and understanding spoken Spanish. Students will be required to participate in verbal exercises designed to develop accurate pronunciation, including, but not limited to memorization/recitation, beginning to intermediate conversation practice, and oral presentations. Students will be examined and graded for accuracy in grammar, reading and written skills, pronunciation, and general knowledge. Students will continue to explore Hispanic culture and history by studying Latin America through the reading and analysis of a variety of primary sources and literary works from that region, spanning from the time of the Conquista to the twentieth century.

Enduring Understandings

  • Language is acquired through progressive improvement in four areas: reading, writing, speaking and listening.
  • Spanish II builds upon the Spanish I foundation with a primary focus on vocabulary, past and future tenses.
  • Listening for understanding becomes more comfortable.
    Forming narrative and descriptive sentences using memorized and non-memorized material is possible.
  • Reading short passages in the target language builds confidence in the learner.
    Studying Mexico in detail provides opportunities to explore a neighboring country and to understand its impact on the USA.
  • Hearing the target language outside of the classroom is exciting. The learner begins to imagine communicating with someone in the target language in the setting where the language is heard.

SPANISH III HONORS
Normally taken in 11th grade
Course Code: 0708360
Teacher: Susan Hering

Do I have enough knowledge in Spanish to study historical and cultural themes in the target language? Is this the year that I will feel ready to risk speaking to native speakers? Will I ever understand all those verb tenses? These are some of the questions that should be on the minds of the Spanish III student. During the course of this school year, we will seek to answer these and many more.

We will travel back in time and explore the Mayan pyramids, stopping to wonder at the similarities between Mayan towns and Egyptian towns across the sea. We will surround ourselves with the sights and sounds of ancient Córdoba and Toledo and consider how a young girl’s daily routine seems quite like ours. And we will walk in the steps of a pilgrim on the way to Santiago de Compostela, learning how even historical, biblical characters can become the stuff of legends.

Spanish Language and Culture III is designed to integrate the study of the Spanish language with an in-depth and comprehensive study of Hispanic culture, using a multi-disciplinary approach that includes study of particular aspects of philosophy, history, sociology, politics, art, music, literature and worldview (pagan and Christian) in Hispanic cultures, both ancient and modern. It provides a thorough intermediate-level grammar review intended to further develop students’ language skills in Spanish, with the goal of producing literate and communicative students who are able to express themselves confidently and effectively in Spanish. Grammar and lexical study is complemented by communicative activities designed to hone students’ skills in the four modes of language production: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Students will have significant exposure to Spanish language texts, such as the Bible, authentic historical documents, and literary texts which serve as the foundation for a comprehensive study of the development of Spanish and Hispanic culture.

Enduring Understandings

  • Extending language learning to the third year builds confidence in the four major skills: reading, writing, speaking and listening.
  • Reading classic works of Spanish literature intertwines the working knowledge of literature learned in other disciplines and introduces Spanish heroes.
  • As one continues learning a language, reading, writing and speaking production naturally lengthens, understanding spoken Spanish requires less translation, and discerning accents from different areas of the Spanish speaking world becomes possible.
  • Studying the issues around immigration gives a broader perspective about those who seek refuge in the USA.
  • Students become more aware of Spanish speakers and opportunities to be helpful.

SPANISH IV HONORS
Normally taken in 12th grade
Course Code: 0708370
Teacher: Susan Hering

How will this year be different from the last three? How much responsibility am I willing to take to move my abilities in Spanish on to the next level? What will be the take-away from Spanish as I graduate? Examining these questions will give you a healthy starting point for Spanish IV.

We will continue to explore, create and connect our learning of Spanish to your world beyond the classroom. We will delve into the Conquest and the Golden Age of Spain and then examine the consequences of its excesses. We will consider the model of government in the Spanish colonies and develop conclusions regarding its successes and failures. We will investigate the twentieth and twenty-first centuries in the Spain and Latin America. We will experience new and creative ways to express our thoughts in Spanish, both in speaking and in literature.

In this course students will develop a strong command of the Spanish language, with proficiency in the four language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Students will complete a wide variety of integrative activities designed to synthesize aural and written materials; to develop reading comprehension skills and communicative strategies; and to refine abilities with extensive informal and formal oral presentations and writing in a variety of topics. Additionally, students will broaden their cultural literacy and awareness through the use and study of authentic Spanish-language literature, substantive newspaper and magazine articles, other non-technical texts, as well as authentic audio and video recordings. These activities are combined with a rigorous and thorough review of grammar structures and vocabulary building activities and with study and application of worldview issues.

Enduring Understandings

  • Extending language learning to the fourth year provides an opportunity for mastery in the four major skills: reading, writing, speaking and listening.
  • Deepening the study of history, literature and cultures of the target language enriches the language acquisition experience. Continuing connections with content learned in other classes emerge. Students’ abilities to transfer their skills of writing, reading and speaking from English to Spanish produces a more mature product.
  • Producing oral presentations for the class in to Spanish brings together the four major skills and strengthens the speaker’s capacity for public speaking.
  • As one gains proficiency in Spanish, it is possible to share faith with Spanish speakers.
    Traveling abroad to study Spanish and/or to do mission work becomes a plausible possibility.

Fine and Performing Arts

All true education begins in wonder and depends upon the imagination to flourish. This is why the arts form part of the core curriculum from K4–12th grade. All grammar and dialectic students study choral and instrumental music, studio art, and drama through eighth grade, while electives in the rhetoric school are designed to allow students to engage more deeply in one of these areas of the fine and performing arts.


RHETORIC CHAMBER CHOIR I–IV
9th–12th grade
Course Code: 1303300, 1303310, 1303320, 1303330
Teachers: Abigail Noble and Skip Stradtman

Inspired by beauty, compelled by gratitude, affirmed by each other.

Chamber Choir exists to embody and display the beauty, gratitude, discipline, and community of God’s redemptive story through music. In addition to assisting in chapel and school ceremonies, this ensemble will study and perform a diverse selection of music, covering a wide range of musical cultures, styles, traditions, and time periods. Through the study of this diverse literature, students will develop sight-singing skills, delve deeper into music theory, and learn to appreciate each person’s unique contribution.

Enduring Understandings

  • Music is a gift from God. It is a powerful medium by which humans reflect their creator.
  • Singing and music-making is a natural human response to the beauty of God, his creation, and his redemptive story.
  • Being made in God’s image, all people are uniquely gifted, and everyone’s voice is valuable.
  • Music, like other subject areas, can be challenging, but is inherently rewarding.
  • Music can be a powerful catalyst for creating and affirming common human values and experiences, while learning to appreciate each person’s individual contribution.
  • Making music is a physical activity, requiring ongoing discipline. It is a skill, taught and learned as a craft, accessible to everyone.

GUITAR I–IV
9th–12th grade
Course Code: 1301320, 1301330, 1301340
Teacher: Tanner Johnson

The guitar is an instrument with a rich pedagogical and cultural history, and it has come to occupy a place alongside voice, piano, and orchestral instruments as an object of serious musical study. Unlike these other instruments, the guitar as we now know it came into existence in the middle of the nineteenth century, and the guitar’s repertoire has come into its own only in the past century, making it something of a musical hybrid: a unique blend of the classical and the contemporary. As perhaps the ideal chamber instrument, the guitar is well suited to both solo and small group ensemble performance.

While the primary activity in guitar class is the rehearsal of ensemble music for public performance, students will study guitar method as well as music theory and sight-reading. We engage with many diverse styles and genres of music, from characteristic Spanish guitar to contemporary compositions. The guitar ensemble performs in concerts alone and in tandem with choral and instrumental groups.

Enduring Understandings

  • The process of learning classical guitar unites the gymnastic, the aesthetic, and the intellectual.
  • The posture of the body, holding of the instrument, and articulation of sound require physical exercise, practice, and discipline.
  • Playing music is as much developing a sense for how something ought to sound as it is a proper articulation of pitches and rhythms. The ability to discern this sense of musical goodness is learned; it is cultivated through “diet” and should be pursued on a life-long trajectory.
  • Understanding the theoretical aspects of composition supports (and is supported by) both the artistic and gymnastic aspects of musical performance.
  • An understanding of the rudiments of music theory is important both for performing and appreciating music. Learning to decipher standard musical notation is an integral skill to even the most basic music education and communication.
  • Learning classical guitar is an amazing and rewarding undertaking.
  • The guitar is a stringed chamber instrument.
  • Classical guitar refers both to a type of instrument as well as method of playing that instrument.

RHETORIC DRAMA I–IV
9th–12th grade
Course Code: 0400310, 0400320, 0400330, 0400340
Teacher: Lisa Hines

Atticus: There’s something I’d like to ask. If you’ll do it, you’ll get along a lot better with all kinds. You see, you never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view.
Jem: Sir?
Atticus: Until you climb into his skin and walk around in it.
(To Kill a Mockingbird)

Drama, an art form where words on a page become flesh on a stage, can be a very powerful medium for building empathy and humility in the participants while glorifying God through storytelling. Through drama, the students do not only read the story, but they enter into it, thinking deeply about the implications of the actions of the characters. They learn to love the characters they portray by seeing the world from their point of view.

The students are not just practicing skills and acting technique, they are also putting empathy into practice, setting aside their selves so that they might understand others better through incarnational participation in the stories they perform, cooperating and collaborating with other students to tell their story as a community. Through drama the students are experiencing all that is good and beautiful in the created order as well as all that is broken and in need of God’s redemption.

Drama is primarily a performance-based class where students will be expected to prepare and perform scenes and monologues throughout the school year. All students will be expected to participate in performance, as well as participate in the critique of class performances. As a class, we will collaborate to choose material to perform for a specific audience. With the guidance of the teacher and input from their peers, students will prepare/direct/act in performances for that audience.

Enduring Understandings

  • The main instrument of the actor is the body. Actors must cultivate basic skills such as voice, physical gestures, and facial expressions in order to portray realistic characters and to communicate emotion to the audience.
  • Cooperation and teamwork is essential for successful performances.
  • Criticism and praise must be given and accepted with grace if an actor is to improve and grow as a performer.
  • It is necessary for an actor to take risks in order to learn how to create successful performances.
  • Making mistakes is a necessary part of the creative process and should not be viewed as a negative outcome.
  • As Christians, it is very important to understand and respect the dramatic art form, how the theatrical medium is used to shape the culture, and to be able to discern whether theatrical presentations are consistent with the Christian worldview.

YEARBOOK: GRAPHIC ARTS & JOURNALISM I–IV
9th–12th grade
Course Code: 1006300, 1006310, 1006320, 1006330
Teacher: AnnMarie Hoyt

A yearbook is a book of remembrance, reference, and storytelling. Our yearbook will the tell story of The Geneva School’s school year. In order to tell our story well, this course will help students learn a variety of skills including graphic design, journalism, and photography, along with small-scale business management. The level of skill development and expectation of application will increase from sections I to IV. Our assignments will be divided into four quarters. The first three will focus on the production of The Geneva School yearbook. The last quarter will see the completion of the yearbook, and we will move on to a variety of other graphic design and journalism related projects and develop the following year’s theme.

Enduring Understandings

  • Recording and sharing stories is valuable.
  • Accuracy of information brings validity to one’s work.
  • Working in teams allows an individual to strengthen his or her own skills, as well as others’.
  • Organization, meeting deadlines, and working within budgets are crucial to a successful business.
  • Attractive design is both impactful and memorable.
  • Students will grow in their appreciation of and artistic abilities in digital design.

Editors and staffers are responsible for carrying out the entire process for creating a yearbook, including but not limited to:

  • Learning and applying software and technology
  • Designing and formatting yearbook pages
  • Delegating assignments to staff members
  • Interviewing
  • Writing headlines, captions, and body text
  • Taking and choosing photos
  • Submitting pages, proofing, and indexing
  • Marketing and distribution

RHETORIC ART I–IV
9th–12th grade
Course Codes: 0101330, 0101340, 0101350, 0101360
Teacher: Matthew Clark and Shelly Bradon

Our goal at the rhetoric level is for each student to use their visual tools of communication to pursue their ideas and find their voice. Students in Art I, Art II, Art III, Art IV, and AP Art are combined in one class. We find that combining students of varying skill level inspires the group, and removes any hindrance to a student advancing at an accelerated pace. The fundamental procedures of studio art—the “how to” aspect—are generally taught early on. Their mastery, however, takes a lifetime to achieve.

In rhetoric art students are taught studio fundamentals such as drawing, painting, printmaking, and sculpture. These skills are not difficult to grasp from a procedural standpoint and do not change significantly from year to year. Students will do projects involving all of them throughout their years in art classes. What will change, however, is their mastery of these skills. Students will be expected to demonstrate increased mastery over their chosen media with each passing year.

Enduring Understandings

  • God makes things—he is creative—and we will imitate him in this. It is better to make things well than to make them poorly. This is one of the reasons we study art making.
  • The arts are inherently experiential and actively engage learners in the processes of creating, interpreting and responding to art.
  • It is important to develop visual literacy in order to look at and see art as it was meant to be seen by its makers. This is a skill to be mastered just as much as reading and understanding books is a skill to be mastered.
  • Through purposeful practice, artists learn to manage, master, and refine simple, then complex, skills and techniques.

AP STUDIO ART/DRAWING
12th grade
Course Code: 0104300
Minimum Prerequisites: Studio Art III (B+), Cum GPA (3.0)
Teacher: Shelly Bradon

Through studio practice, application of design concepts, and informed decision making, students will assemble a body of artwork that demonstrates a high level of quality and growth over time of content. Students will develop mastery in concept, composition, and execution. Students will address three components in their portfolios: quality, concentration, and breadth. Students will submit this body of work to the College Board for grading and possible college credit.

Artistic Integrity: Students are expected to use artistic integrity throughout the course. Work that is based on published photographs or the work of other artists must move beyond duplication to illustrate an original idea.

Drawing Portfolio: By exploring a variety of design processes and techniques, concepts and aesthetics, students will demonstrate their mastery of drawing, painting and printmaking while advancing their visual communication skills.

2-D Design Portfolio: Students will expand their two-dimensional design skills and advance their visual communication skills by exploring a variety of design processes and techniques, and compositional and aesthetic concepts.

Enduring Understandings

  • We are made in the image of a creator God; our desire to be creative and to use art as a form of understanding ourselves and the world around us is a reflection of his glory.
  • The arts are inherently experiential and actively engage learners in the processes of creating, interpreting and responding to art.
  • Art is to a large degree craft and much of it can be learned and practiced as a skill. An AP Portfolio should demonstrate a students’ ability to use their voice through their work.

DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY I
9th–12th grade
Course Code: 0108310
Teacher: Erin Rhoden

Digital Photography I is designed to enable students to develop and demonstrate basic skill and understanding in photographic imagery, processes, and techniques and to use these techniques to express who they are in Christ. The course is divided into two basic elements: the camera and image processing. These two elements are taught alongside one another in a fluid synergistic method. The instructor focuses on the grammar of photography, introducing the camera as a tool and teaching students how to use this tool following the basic rules of photographic composition. Dialectic reasoning occurs in the second quarter, with the students printing and enhancing their own work applying the standards of photography. Students also study the work of professional photographers to see what makes an outstanding photograph and critique their own work as well as others applying the “rules” of photography. In the third and fourth quarter the students will move onto the rhetoric of photography by applying creative techniques to express themselves as a creation of God and to show the truth and beauty of creation.

Enduring Understandings

  • Photography I students enjoy creating images that meet the standards of a good photograph using the manual controls on their camera.
  • The students gain a good working knowledge of their camera’s functions.
  • A good photograph requires the photographer to control aperture, shutter speed, ISO, and white balance.
  • A good photograph requires an understanding of composition and lighting.
  • Photography requires the photographer to have the essential editing skills of Photoshop/Lightroom and be able to print their own images.
  • This knowledge of their camera and ability to manipulate their camera’s controls will give the students a greater appreciation of God’s creation, and their ability to create a beautiful image.

DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY II
10th–12th grade
Course Code: 0108320
Minimum Prerequisites: Photography I
Teacher: Alison Epps

Digital Photography II is designed to teach the students about all forms of light. The students are introduced to flash photography, studio lighting, and strobes. Photography II students learn how to create and manipulate all sources of light through fun and creative assignments. The students shoot in RAW and streamline the Photoshop/Lightroom workflow.

Enduring Understandings

  • By learning the elements of design, the photography student are able to create powerful images.
  • Advancing photographers need an understanding of light and how to manipulate it in every situation.
  • Flash, strobes, and natural light are used to create creative images.
  • By learning the impact of color, students are able to make visual statements about their image.
  • This advanced knowledge of their camera and light gives photographers greater appreciation of God’s creation, and the ability to express their unique vision through photography.

DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY III/AP
10th–12th grade
Course Code: 0108330 (Photo III) / 0109350 (AP)
Minimum Prerequisites: Photography II / Photo II (B+), Cum GPA (3.0) for AP
Teacher: Kellie Harding

Digital Photography III/AP concentrates on discovering the photography student’s unique style. The students spend the year experimenting with and expressing their own unique photographic vision. Through their assignments, they give their vision a voice. Digital Photography III/AP is designed to teach the students a higher level of understanding with light, aperture, and exposure as it relates to photography. The students learn advanced Photoshop and Lightroom skills and difficult to shoot settings are mastered.

Digital Photography III/AP students create a portfolio showing they have mastered the breadth of design elements. The students create a concentration of work showcasing their vision through mastery of advanced photography skills. The AP students submit their portfolio to the AP college board.

Enduring Understandings

  • By using the creative controls on their camera, photography students are able to enjoy creating images that meet the standards of a professional photograph.
  • Advancing photographers need an understanding of light and how to manipulate it in every situation.
  • Advanced photographers have advanced editing skills using Photoshop/Lightroom.
  • By entering photo contests, advancing photographers begin to learn the value of sharing their images and getting feedback.
  • This advanced knowledge of their camera and ability to manipulate their camera’s controls and light gives photographers greater appreciation of God’s creation, and their unique vision of the world.
The Geneva School
The Geneva School
September 18, 2019
  • US - B Schedule

    Date: September 18, 2019 - September 18, 2019
    Time: 12:00 am- 11:59 pm
    See more details

  • LSC Convo

    Date: September 18, 2019 - September 18, 2019
    Time: 8:25 am- 8:40 am
    See more details

  • 1st Gr - Moms Coffee

    Date: September 18, 2019 - September 18, 2019
    Time: 8:30 am- 10:30 am
    See more details

  • US Mentor Groups

    Date: September 18, 2019 - September 18, 2019
    Time: 9:35 am- 10:20 am
    See more details

  • Florence Big/Little Event

    Date: September 18, 2019 - September 18, 2019
    Time: 12:50 pm- 1:20 pm
    See more details

September 19, 2019
  • US - C Schedule

    Date: September 19, 2019 - September 19, 2019
    Time: 12:00 am- 11:59 pm
    See more details

  • LSC Convo

    Date: September 19, 2019 - September 19, 2019
    Time: 8:25 am- 8:40 am
    See more details

  • 4th Grade Moms Coffee

    Date: September 19, 2019 - September 19, 2019
    Time: 9:00 am- 11:00 am
    See more details

  • Varsity Boys Golf Home Match vs. Real Life Academy

    Date: September 19, 2019 - September 19, 2019
    Time: 4:00 pm- 7:00 pm
    See more details

  • MS Girls Volleyball Away at The Masters Academy doubleheader

    Date: September 19, 2019 - September 19, 2019
    Time: 4:30 pm- 6:30 pm
    See more details

  • Girls JV Volleyball Home Match vs. Lake Howell

    Date: September 19, 2019 - September 19, 2019
    Time: 5:00 pm- 6:00 pm
    See more details

  • Girls Varsity Volleyball Home Match vs. Lake Howell

    Date: September 19, 2019 - September 19, 2019
    Time: 6:00 pm- 7:00 pm
    See more details

  • 5th Gr - Williamsburg Parent Meeting

    Date: September 19, 2019 - September 19, 2019
    Time: 6:30 pm- 8:00 pm
    See more details

September 20, 2019
  • US - A Schedule

    Date: September 20, 2019 - September 20, 2019
    Time: 12:00 am- 11:59 pm
    See more details

  • Progress Reports Sent Home (3rd-6th)

    Date: September 20, 2019 - September 20, 2019
    Time: 12:00 am- 11:59 pm
    See more details

  • LSC Convo

    Date: September 20, 2019 - September 20, 2019
    Time: 8:25 am- 8:40 am
    See more details

  • 6th Gr - TEAM Day

    Date: September 20, 2019 - September 20, 2019
    Time: 8:30 am- 2:30 pm
    See more details

  • 7th & 8th Gr - Moms Coffee

    Date: September 20, 2019 - September 20, 2019
    Time: 8:30 am- 10:30 am
    See more details

  • MS Coed Soccer Home Game vs. Kingsway

    Date: September 20, 2019 - September 20, 2019
    Time: 4:30 pm- 5:30 pm
    See more details

September 21, 2019
  • 7 & 8 Grade Choirs, Rhetoric Choir & Ladies Choir Retreat

    Date: September 21, 2019 - September 21, 2019
    Time: 9:00 am- 1:00 pm
    See more details

  • JV volleyball Tournament

    Date: September 21, 2019 - September 21, 2019
    Time: 9:00 am- 4:00 pm
    See more details

  • Katie Kaples - Bishop Kenny High School

    Date: September 21, 2019 - September 21, 2019
    Time: 3:45 pm- 9:30 pm
    See more details

September 18, 2019
  • US - B Schedule

    Date: September 18, 2019 - September 18, 2019
    Time: 12:00 am- 11:59 pm
    See more details

  • LSC Convo

    Date: September 18, 2019 - September 18, 2019
    Time: 8:25 am- 8:40 am
    See more details

  • 1st Gr - Moms Coffee

    Date: September 18, 2019 - September 18, 2019
    Time: 8:30 am- 10:30 am
    See more details

  • US Mentor Groups

    Date: September 18, 2019 - September 18, 2019
    Time: 9:35 am- 10:20 am
    See more details

  • Florence Big/Little Event

    Date: September 18, 2019 - September 18, 2019
    Time: 12:50 pm- 1:20 pm
    See more details

September 19, 2019
  • US - C Schedule

    Date: September 19, 2019 - September 19, 2019
    Time: 12:00 am- 11:59 pm
    See more details

  • LSC Convo

    Date: September 19, 2019 - September 19, 2019
    Time: 8:25 am- 8:40 am
    See more details

  • 4th Grade Moms Coffee

    Date: September 19, 2019 - September 19, 2019
    Time: 9:00 am- 11:00 am
    See more details

  • Varsity Boys Golf Home Match vs. Real Life Academy

    Date: September 19, 2019 - September 19, 2019
    Time: 4:00 pm- 7:00 pm
    See more details

  • MS Girls Volleyball Away at The Masters Academy doubleheader

    Date: September 19, 2019 - September 19, 2019
    Time: 4:30 pm- 6:30 pm
    See more details

  • Girls JV Volleyball Home Match vs. Lake Howell

    Date: September 19, 2019 - September 19, 2019
    Time: 5:00 pm- 6:00 pm
    See more details

  • Girls Varsity Volleyball Home Match vs. Lake Howell

    Date: September 19, 2019 - September 19, 2019
    Time: 6:00 pm- 7:00 pm
    See more details

  • 5th Gr - Williamsburg Parent Meeting

    Date: September 19, 2019 - September 19, 2019
    Time: 6:30 pm- 8:00 pm
    See more details

September 20, 2019
  • US - A Schedule

    Date: September 20, 2019 - September 20, 2019
    Time: 12:00 am- 11:59 pm
    See more details

  • Progress Reports Sent Home (3rd-6th)

    Date: September 20, 2019 - September 20, 2019
    Time: 12:00 am- 11:59 pm
    See more details

  • LSC Convo

    Date: September 20, 2019 - September 20, 2019
    Time: 8:25 am- 8:40 am
    See more details

  • 6th Gr - TEAM Day

    Date: September 20, 2019 - September 20, 2019
    Time: 8:30 am- 2:30 pm
    See more details

  • 7th & 8th Gr - Moms Coffee

    Date: September 20, 2019 - September 20, 2019
    Time: 8:30 am- 10:30 am
    See more details

  • MS Coed Soccer Home Game vs. Kingsway

    Date: September 20, 2019 - September 20, 2019
    Time: 4:30 pm- 5:30 pm
    See more details

September 21, 2019
  • 7 & 8 Grade Choirs, Rhetoric Choir & Ladies Choir Retreat

    Date: September 21, 2019 - September 21, 2019
    Time: 9:00 am- 1:00 pm
    See more details

  • JV volleyball Tournament

    Date: September 21, 2019 - September 21, 2019
    Time: 9:00 am- 4:00 pm
    See more details

  • Katie Kaples - Bishop Kenny High School

    Date: September 21, 2019 - September 21, 2019
    Time: 3:45 pm- 9:30 pm
    See more details

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